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Decline in trophic level of fisheries catch since 1950
A trophic level of an organism is its position in a food chain. Levels are numbered according to how far particular organisms are along the chain from the primary producers, to herbivores, to predators, to carnivores or ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Relative changes in food supply (crops and livestock): industrial and developing countries
Over the past 40 years, globally, intensification of cultivated systems has been the primary source (almost 80%) of increased output. But some countries, predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa, have had persistently l...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Time series of intercepted continental runoff and large reservoir storage, 1900–2000
The years 1960–2000 have shown a rapid move toward flow stabilization, which has slowed recently in some parts of the world due to the growing social, economic, and environmental concerns surrounding large hydraulic engi...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Proportion of population with improved drinking water supply in 2002
Access to improved drinking water is estimated by the percentage of the population using the following drinking water sources: household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, or ra...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems (CWG)
The cell color indicates impact of each driver on biodiversity in each type of ecosystem over the past 50–100 years. High impact means that over the last century the particular driver has significantly altered biodiversi...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Net change in components of human well-being between 2000 and 2050
Order from Strength, which focuses on reactive policies in a regionalized world, has the least favorable outcomes for human well-being, as the global distribution of ecosystem services and human resources that underpin h...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Proportion of population with improved sanitation coverage in 2002
Access to improved sanitation is estimated by the percentage of the population using the following sanitation facilities: connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrin...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries
In most countries, the marketed values of ecosystems associated with timber and fuelwood production are less than one third of the total economic value, including non-marketed values such as carbon sequestration, watersh...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades
In the case of forest cover change, the studies refer to the period 1980–2000 and are based on national statistics, remote sensing, and, to a limited degree, expert opinion. In the case of land cover change resulting fro...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated total reactive nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere (wet and dry) in 1860, early 1990s, and projected for 2050
Atmospheric deposition currently accounts for roughly 12% of the reactive nitrogen entering terrestrial and coastal marine ecosystems globally, although in some regions, atmospheric deposition accounts for a higher perce...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of ecosystem services enhanced or degraded by 2050
100% degradation means that all the services in the category were degraded in 2050 compared with 2000, while 50% improvement could mean that three out of six services were enhanced and the rest were unchanged or that fou...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services
The time scale of change refers to the time required for the effects of a perturbation of a process to be expressed. Inertia refers to the delay or slowness in the response of a system to factors altering their rate of c...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Poorest countries lose income under all Doha scenarios
There are major distributional impacts among countries and within countries that in many cases have not been favorable for small-scale farmers and rural livelihoods. The poorest developing countries are net losers under ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Counting female-headed households
In SSA women make up two-thirds of those infected with HIV/AIDS. This adds additional burdens for women as producers of food and as family caretakers. Labor loss due to illness, need to care for family members and paid e...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by source, 2004
Overall, agriculture (cropping and livestock) contributes 13.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions mostly through emissions of methane and nitrous oxide (about 47% and 58% of total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Monsanto Corporation's global vegetable seed market share
Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biotechnology and modern biotechnology defined
Modern biotechnology is a term adopted by international convention to refer to biotechnological techniques for the manipulation of genetic material and the fusion of cells beyond normal breeding barriers. The most obviou...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total agricultural output
Substantial gains in agricultural productivity over the past 50 years have reduced rates of hunger and malnutrition, improved the health and livelihoods of many millions of people and stimulated economic growth in numero...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Are
Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture
There is a need to develop agricultural policies that both reduce emissions and allow adaptation to climate change that are closer to carbon-neutral, minimize trace gas emissions and reduce natural capital degradation. I...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changes in available water in Africa: end of 20th and 21st centuries
Salinization affects about 10% of the world’s irrigated land, while the loss of biodiversity and its associated agroecological functions (estimated to provide economic benefits of US$ 1,542 billion per year) adversely af...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agricultural labor as share of total labor
As the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increases the percentage of agricultural labour as the entire labour of a country. East Africa has the highest levels of agricultural labour as Japan and the U.S.A. have the lowest lev...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
From biomass to energy consumption
As biomass feedstocks are widely available, bioenergy offers an attractive complement to fossil fuels and thus has potential to alleviate concerns of a geopolitical and energy security nature. However, only a small part ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Price change of selected retail foodstuffs and the percentage of retail value paid to primary
The elimination or the substantial reduction of subsidies and protectionism in industrialized countries, especially for commodities in which developing countries compete such as sugar, groundnuts and cotton is important ...
03 Jan 2008 - by Ketill Berger
Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural)
Gender equity is an important part of social equity. Women and men, who often have different roles and responsibilities in households and food production, often have different relationships to the various benefits derive...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arenda
World's top seed companies
The top ten seed companies have incomes at over $10 billion USD. Monsanto and Dupont/Pioneer lead the way with over 50% of seed sales in the world. All of the top ten companies are located in the U.S.A, Japan or Europe.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Counting women’s labor
Besides housekeeping and child rearing, women and girls are usually responsible for fetching water and fuel wood. Women and girls tend to perform tasks such as planting, transplanting, hand weeding, harvesting, picking f...
03 Jan 2008 - by Ketill Berger
Women quantify lack of control over work resources
Poor rural infrastructure such as the lack of clean water supply, electricity or fuel increases women’s work load and limits their availability for professional training, childcare and income generation. The lack of acce...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Andean cosmovision
The local Pacha (mother earth) is a micro-cosmos, a representation of the cosmos at large. It is animated, sacred, consubstantial, immanent, diverse, variable, and harmonious. Within the local Pacha there is the Ayllu (C...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agricultural water withdrawals as proportion of total water withdrawals
Agriculture already consumes 70% of all global freshwater withdrawn worldwide and has depleted soil nutrients, resulting in N, P and K deficiencies covering 59%, 85%, and 90% of harvested area respectively in the year 20...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agricultural liberalization: Developing country winners and losers under Doha Scenario for agriculture (scenario 1)
Under various new scenarios for world agricultural trade and development many of the world's regions will be negatively affected. Under the Doha Scenario China would fair the worst with many developing nations running in...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global legislation concerning and global burden of, infectious animal diseases
Serious socioeconomic impacts can arise when diseases spread widely within human or animal populations (such as H5N1), or when they spill over from animal reservoirs to human hosts; farming intensification often increase...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
A multifunctional perspective of agriculture
In IAASTD, multifunctionality is used solely to express the inescapable interconnectedness of agriculture’s different roles and functions. The concept of multifunctionality recognizes agriculture as a multi-output activi...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture
Agricultural trade offers opportunities for developing countries to benefit from larger scale production for global markets, acquire some commodities cheaper than would be possible through domestic production, and gain a...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Areas of physical and economic water scarcity
Under current water use practices, increases in population and changes in diet are projected to increase water consumption in food and fiber production by 70-90%. If demands for biomass energy increase, this may aggravat...
03 Jan 2008 - by Unknown
Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000
During a 20 year period between 1981 to 2000 the amount of agricultural research by developing nations has outgrown those of higher income countries. The increase has been steady throughout the entire period as it is in ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land area: Conventional and genetically modified crops
While many regions are actively experimenting with GMOs at a small scale, the highly concentrated cultivation of GM crops in a few countries (nearly three-fourths in only the US and Argentina, with 90% in the four countr...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected impact of climate change
Future climate change and projected impacts: Increased growth and yield rates due to higher levels of carbon dioxide and temperatures could result in longer growing seasons. For example, in mid to high latitude regions, ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in real commodity prices
Agriculture is a fundamental instrument for sustainable development; about 70% of the world’s poor are rural and most are involved in farming. National policy needs to arrive at a balance between a higher prices which ca...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Market concentration
Agricultural trade is increasingly organized in global chains, dominated by a few large transnational buyers (trading companies, agrifood processors and companies involved in production of commodities). In these globaliz...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop
Ensuring policy space for all these countries to maintain prices for crops that are important to food security and rural livelihoods is essential. Agricultural policies in industrialized countries, including export subsi...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land use
Changes in land use have negatively affected the net ability of ecosystems to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. For instance, the carbon rich grasslands and forests in temperate zones have been replaced by crops with...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006
Some regions report increases in some crops and positive financial returns have been reported for genetically modified cotton in studies including South Africa, Argentina, China, India and Mexico. In contrast, the US and...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Developing countries: share of agricultural exports in the world market (Hong Kong scenario)
Agricultural trade can offer opportunities for the poor, but there are major distributional impacts among countries and within countries that in many cases have not been favorable for small-scale farmers and rural liveli...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Top 10 global food retailers
Agricultural commodities the world have seen a decline in prices accompanied by wide fluctuations over the past decades. IAASTD projections of the global food system indicate a tightening of world food markets, with incr...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Alon...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Alon...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Unemployment in the Caucasus ecoregion
High unemployment is one of the driving forces behind the degradation of ecosystems in the region. Upon the break-up of the Soviet Union the situation worsened as the economy was restructured. After almost two decades th...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Pasture land in the Caucausus ecoregion
Overgrazing and uncontrolled livestock grazing threatens steppe, subalpine and alpine ecosystems. A third of pasturelands in the region are subject to erosion. Sheep grazing in the winter ranges and the steppes and semi-...
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
Forests in the Caucasus ecoregion
About 17% of the total land area of the Caucasus is covered by forests, primarily found between altitudes of 500-2000m and growing on steep slopes. Most forests are broadleaf forests but a number of different types are f...
01 Nov 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
Protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors in the Caucausus
This map shows protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors identified in 'Eco-regional Conservation Plan for the Caucasus'. Priority conservation areas were agreed where there is important concent...
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus
Demography of the Caucausus ecoregion, rural and urban population
The Caucasus ecoregion, which includes the countries of Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran, has three main urban centres - Yerevan, Tbilisi and Baku. Rural population is primarily distr...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Poverty levels in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion, with the countries Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran represents a region in transition. Poverty is a key factor in human and economic development. The highest level...
06 Nov 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus region is important in terms of heavy industry. Being rich with natural mineral resources, extraction industry is playing an important role in the overall economic development. However, concerns related to u...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Climate zones of the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion covers an area of 580,000 km2, and includes six countries. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range with its lofty peaks forms a formidable barrier between the northern and southern parts of the ecoregi...
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
Poverty in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion, with the countries Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran represents a region in transition. Poverty is a key factor in human and economic development. This map show sti...
06 Nov 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
The Caucasus ecoregion, topographic map
The Caucasus ecoregion covers a total area of 580,000 km2, includes six countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russian and Turkey - and follows the ecoregion definition prepared by WWF in their Action plan for C...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze, cartographer
Cattle in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Alon...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Agricultural land in the Caucasus ecoregion
About 54% of a total of 44,019,400 ha of land is used for agriculture in the Caucasus. Most agricultural land is located in the plains, the Kuban-Azov plain, the Stavropol plateau, the Kura-Araks lowland and the Ararat v...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Transportation network in the Caucasus ecoregion
Transportation routes through mountain regions have always been of vital importance not just for mountain dwellers but also for traders between regions. In the Caucasus, transport routes are of immense importance as they...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
The Caucasus ecoregion, administrative units
The Caucasus ecoregion, between the Black and Caspian Seas, crosses 6 countries. Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are fully contained in this ecoregion, while parts of the Russian Federation, Turkey and Iran are included ...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Shrinking of Fedchenko Glacier in the Pamirs of Tajikistan
Significant loss of glaciers in Central Asia began around the 1930s, and become more dramatic in the second half of the 20th century and continue into the 21st century. Glacier area was reduced in the Tien Shan and in th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
West Stara Planina Mountains
In 2006, the Stara Planina Euroregion was established to foster trans-boundary cooperation between border municipalities in Serbia and Bulgaria, and assist governments with planning, and implementing cooperation and regi...
08 Feb 2008 - by UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Europe
Glacier shrinking on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic
A new glacier inventory based on satellite data shows that the glacier cover reduced by about 22 per cent between the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent and 2000. Changes in glacier area and volume are being used as ind...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Caucasus ice-rock avalanche in Russian Republic of North Ossetia
An ice-rock avalanche in the Kazbek region sheared off almost the entire Kolka Glacier and devastated the Genaldon valley. The satellite images show the region before (July 22, 2001) and after (October 6, 2002) the ice-r...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic map, political
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in s...
11 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic conservation area (CAFF), political map
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is a working group under the Arctic Council, for the countries of Russia, Denmark, USA, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Finland and indigenous peoples. Monitoring, assessmen...
11 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007
The political map and landscape in Europe has changed drastically in the period of 1957-2007. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the European Communities was formed in 1957 by the treaty of Rome, with six signator...
11 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Poverty mapping study area
This map represents the study area for the poverty mapping project for West Africa for generation of reliable statistical and cartographic products to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use poten...
11 Feb 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resources - agricultural potential
Soils underpin the production of a wide range of agricultural and industrial goods and services. Soil productivity is essential to agricultural activities - for food security, cash income and supporting the livelihoods o...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trade in illegal wood products and corruption
Where government officials are keen to keep an eye shut for a share of the profits, the more the forests suffer. About 5 billion USD per year is estimated to be lost due to uncollected taxes and royalties on legally sanc...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
With our climate changes, we have to adapt our ways to a new environment – in most cases warmer and possibly wetter and drier. Projections on the climate in the future provide some guidance for us, but how can we create ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human vulnerability and food insecurity – rainfall and economy in Sub-Saharan Africa
For Sub-Saharan Africa, patterns in economic growth follow precipitation patterns closely. As rainfall has decreased over the last 30 years, so has the financial development. Rainfed agriculture represents a major share ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth
To alleviate rural poverty, one way is to sustainably use the natural resources available to the people and the communities. By supporting and expanding fisheries, small-scale mining, forestry, ecosystem services and oth...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resources path to poverty reduction - diagramme
The rural poor of the World, and the poor countries that they live in, do not have much in monetary wealth - but natural resources represents a possible source of income. With the right support, on both the national leve...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The economy of legal wildlife trade
The trade in wild species can contribute significantly to rural incomes, and the effect upon local economies can be substantial. The high value of wildlife products and derivatives can also provide positive economic inc...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. The majority of the catches in some of the areas of the coast are not primarily by the coastal countries, but rather as in thi...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries
It is estimated that exported timber only represents 5 per cent of the wood cut in tropical forests. 10 per cent is timber used locally and the majority - 85 per cent- of wood is for fuel. While exports are generally the...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The development potential - available land per capita, in land use class
The amount of land area available per capita provides a rough measure on the current carrying capacity for food security and for the development of additional agricultural products for export – such as biofuels. The calc...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Financial flows for developing countries
With increased globalization and a smaller world, money flows more easily and the flows have increased. Where aid once represented a majority of the funds from high income countries to developing countries, this has now ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Money talks for turtles - conservation and economy
Marine turtles have been used for eggs, meat, shell, oil, leather or other products for 7000 years. Modern times have introduced another way for society to profit from these species - to generate economic income as a tou...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World poverty distribution
Three-quarters of all poor people still live in rural areas. They are heavily reliant on natural resources for their livelihoods: soil, water, forests and fisheries underpin commercial and subsistence activities and ofte...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resource - solar power (potential)
More than two billion people cannot access affordable energy services today. They depend on inefficient locally collected and often unprocessed biomass-based fuels, such as crop residues, wood, and animal dung. Because c...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resources - minerals
In more than hundred countries around the world, miners dig minerals and metals out of the ground, satisfying a slowly but continuously increasing demand from industrial production, agriculture, construction, high-tech s...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forests working for the global climate - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD)
Carbon trading of credits from avoided deforestation could yield billions of dollars for tropical countries, according to an analysis by Rhett A.Butler, founder and editor from mongabay.com, a leading tropical forest web...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Government revenues from diamond exports in Sierra Leone
The government of Sierra Leone saw a total of USD 5.2 million (2004) in revenues from diamond related activities. This comes in the form of mining, dealer and export license fees and from export taxes. To feed some of th...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda
The Mabira forest reserve, on the shores of Lake Victoria hosts valuable wildlife, serves as a timber resource, provides ecosystem services for the water balance and the rainforests represents a tourist destination. Foll...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests)
Approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on forests for their livelihoods. Forest and its products provide cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off)
Freshwater – a natural resource which has been adopted as a human right by the UN in 2002: 'the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient; affordable; physically accessible; safe and acceptable water for perso...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Electrification and traditional fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) consists of 15 countries, with 233 million inhabitants. Apart from Mauritius and the countries around South Africa in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the remai...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resources - marine resources
Primary ocean productivity, as measured in grammes of carbon per square meter, from remote sensing imagery outlines the areas with rich marine life. These areas are characterised by an abundance of marine life and they p...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003
In 1970s and 1980s - years of environmental crisis, there were few trees remaining in Niger. Wind-blown sands razed farmers' young crops and they often had to plant crops three times to succeed. Since the middle of the 1...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fiji, topographic map
The Republic of Fiji is a small island country in the South Pacific Ocean. The country has a population of 850 000 people spread out over an archipelago of islands. The largest ones, Viti Levu and Vanua Leva houses the m...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003
Mass-balance estimates for Greenland show thickening at high elevations since the early 1990s at rates that increased to about 4 cm per year after 2000, consistent with expectations of increasing snowfall in a warming cl...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecoregions in Antarctica
Antarctica represents a very unique and special case on our planet. With the richness of the Southern Ocean, the coasts and the Southern islands have relatively high biodiversity and biomass in the form of numerous sea b...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major research stations in Antarctica
Antarctica is interesting for many types of researchers. For example, glaciologists study the ice and snow, while oceanographers look at the oceans. The ice, snow and oceans affect the global climate and are presently ch...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major global bird migration routes to the Arctic
Bird species that migrate to the Arctic coasts and wetlands arrive from nearly every corner of the planet. During the summer, the sun never or nearly never sets, resulting in a short but intensive breeding season when mi...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal