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Nutrition in Central Asia
In the year 2000 the Aral Sea region did not have properly balanced nutitional elements in food production and the supply was lower than demand. For the year 2020 the demand is predicted to grow and without preventing ma...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Can the Aral Sea produce enough food?
The Aral Sea is facing a challenge in producing enough food for the surrounding area. In all predictive models of climate change rate the region will be in for hard times when it comes to producing food by the year 2020.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Economy in the Central Asia
The economy of the various countries within the Aral Sea region sometimes greatly differ in inflation, debt and GDP. This is a report on the economies of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russi...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Can the Aral Sea produce enough food? [Russian]
The Aral Sea is facing a challenge in producing enough food for the surrounding area. In all predictive models of climate change rate the region will be in for hard times when it comes to producing food by the year 2020....
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Poverty in Central Asia [Russian]
More than forty percent of central asians live below the poverty line and in Tajikistan it is above eighty percent. Also indicated in this slide is the low income equality index results for Central Asia. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water resources and demand in the Aral Sea region
The regulation and access to a shared and limited water resource ca be highly influenced by the political geography. The Aral Sea is shrinking at an alarming rate and the amount of consumption of water in the Aral Sea Ba...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Economy in the Central Asia [Russian]
The economy of the various countries within the Aral Sea region sometimes greatly differ in inflation, debt and GDP. This is a report on the economies of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russi...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Poverty in Central Asia
More than forty percent of central asians live below the poverty line and in Tajikistan it is above eighty percent. Also indicated in this slide is the low income equality index results for Central Asia.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Environment in Central Asia [Russian]
There are 25 billion tonnes of waste just from mining and metal production in Central Asia. The most effected areas are highlighted based on a variety of different types of environmental damage such as desertification an...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aral Sea: Chances of Survival [Russian]
The Aral Sea is shrinking at an alarming rate and the amount of consumption of water in the Aral Sea Basin has greatly affected current conditions. This shows predicted models of water problems in the Aral Sea. In Russia...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water resources and demand in the Aral Sea region [Russian]
The regulation and access to a shared and limited water resource ca be highly influenced by the political geography. The Aral Sea is shrinking at an alarming rate and the amount of consumption of water in the Aral Sea Ba...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Development in Central Asia
The predictive models for population growth and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Aral Sea region shows there maybe some stabilization between the two and possibly some positive implications for the region.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cultivated Land in Aral Sea Region [Russian]
Between 1990 and 2000 the area of cultivated land per capita in the Aral Sea region has dramatically reduced. The predictive models to the year 2020 show the increase demand in irrigation of the region. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cultivated Land in Aral Sea Region
Between 1990 and 2000 the area of cultivated land per capita in the Aral Sea region has dramatically reduced. The predictive models to the year 2020 show the increase demand in irrigation of the region.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy consumption in Central Asia [Russian]
Industry in Central Asia consumes two hundred to three hundred more energy than in Western Europe. The levels of productivity based on consumption of electricity and gross domestic product is noticeably lower in Central ...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aral Sea: Chances of Survival
The Aral Sea is shrinking at an alarming rate and the amount of consumption of water in the Aral Sea Basin has greatly affected current conditions. This shows predicted models of water problems in the Aral Sea.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiveristy in Central Asia [Russian]
Caspian and Balkhash endemic species are under threat of extinction. It is estimated that ten percent of total area needs to be protected in order to sustain development and the countries of the region are seriously behi...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Environment in Central Asia
There are 25 billion tonnes of waste just from mining and metal production in Central Asia. The most effected areas are highlighted based on a variety of different types of environmental damage such as desertification an...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy consumption in Central Asia
Industry in Central Asia consumes two hundred to three hundred more energy than in Western Europe. The levels of productivity based on consumption of electricity and gross domestic product is noticeably lower in Central ...
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Health in Central Asia
Central Asia has a very high infant mortality rate and many other major health problems. This graphic shows some of the main causes of death as well as infant mortality and life expectancy rates for the region.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Central Asia: political transition and environmental risks
The Environment and Security consultations in Ashgabat in 2003 pinpointed the Ferghana valley as an area of significant concern in Central Asia (UNEP, UNDP, OSCE 2003) The graphic shows the priority geographic areas and ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Environment and Security priority areas in the Ferghana Valley
The graphic shows an outline of the areas within the Ferghana Valley which are subjects to disputes over water resources and borders, disputes between private and collective farmers, deforestation and overuse of pasture....
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov and Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change and natural disaster impacts in the Ferghana Valley
Central Asia is a disaster-prone area, exposed to various natural hazards such as floods, droughts, avalanches, rockslide and earthquakes. It is also vulnerable to man-made disasters related to industrial activity and th...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Causual pathway of conflict over resources
For violence to occur there should be someone able to extract economic profit from the situation. Access to specific natural resources is a factor that can motivate actors to use violence as means of control (diamonds, o...
16 Mar 2006 - by Luigi de Martino and Viktor Novikov
Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia
The Soviet development model for Central Asia was based on building large-scale irrigation schemes enabling the region to become a major cotton producer and expanding the mining and processing industry. Industrial operat...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land issues in the Ferghana valley
The high demographic pressure on limited land resources coincides with a lack of jobs and economic prospects especially in marginalized areas but increasingly in the irrigated areas of Uzbekistan. These factors are trigg...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oblasts in the Ferghana Valley area
One important outcome of the ENVSEC consultations in Osh in 2004 has been the re- establishment of communication between environmental authorities from the oblasts of the three countries constituting the Ferghana Valley....
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hazardous industrial waste in Kadamjai
The Kadamjai antimony plant in southern Kyrgyzstan stands close to the Uzbek border and the town of the same name. The plant annually consumes 20 000 tones of ore. Ore waste dumps are exposed to erosion by rain and wind ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population density in the Ferghana Valley province
Given the importance of agriculture for the whole Ferghana basin, natural resources such as land and water have historically been amongst the most important factor in this regions development. The size of the population ...
31 Oct 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population trends for Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
Output by the Central Asian economies dropped sharply after independence with subsequent fall in living conditions. Poverty is widespread, especially in rural areas. Communal services have broken down in many areas, stra...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Radioactive waste in Taboshar
The Taboshar uranium mining site stands on the southern edge of the Kuramin Mountains close the Uzbek - Tajik border. The site consists of a non - rehabilitated open mine, dismantled production buildings, and three taili...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Rising water levels in the Spitamen district (Tajikistan)
Sudden releases of water into the Spitamen district from Kyrgyzstan are regularly endangering the neighboring Tajik arable land downstream and villages along the river. The Tajik communities are convinced upstream Kyrgyz...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Metal production in the South Kyrgyz mines of the Ferghana Valley
In the soviet period the industrial operations paid little attention to environment or public health, resulting in the accumulation of pollutants in the local environment. Because of their vulnerability to natural hazard...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Walnut forest in the Jalal-Abad province (Kyrgyzstan)
The walnut forest is remnants of Central Asia Tertiary era subtropical forests. They are located primarily in the northern slopes of the Ferghana and Chatkal ranges of the Tien Shan and on the southern slopes of the Giss...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Environment and Security Initiative : Today`s priorities and future challenges
The pilot phase of the initiative in 2003 assessed environmental threats in Central Asia and South –Eastern Europe, two regions where environmental concerns have clear security implications. The Southern Caucasus joined ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov and Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water withdrawal and availability in Aral Sea basin
Agriculture is a mainstay of Central Asia’s economy. With the economic crisis following independence it has become even more important. Agriculture being almost entirely dependent upon irrigation, access to water is of s...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Topography and hydrography of the Ferghana Valley
To date there are three main groups of issues that are relevant to environmental and security issues in the region. These are access to and quality if natural resources (primarily water and land but also forest and more...
03 Oct 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gross National Income (GNI) kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
The rationale of the common soviet market and economic system has disappeared, forcing Central Asian states to find their own position in the global market without the support of a redistributive economy. Their geographi...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in regional average surface temperature in the Ferghana Valley area
An important factor when looking at the region in terms of environment and security is the impact of climate change in Central Asia in general, and Ferghana Valley in particular. By modifying people’s livelihood, climate...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population distribution in the Ferghana valley
Given the importance of agriculture for the whole Ferghana basin, natural resources such as land and water have historically been amongst the most important factor in this regions development. The size of the population ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Dominique del Pietro and Diana Rizzolio
Water issues in the Ferghana Valley
Water is a basic production resource for agriculture. Competition for scarce water resources has been recognized as a potential source of international conflict. In the case of the Ferghana Valley, despite the very local...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Industrial pollution and waste hotspots in the Ferghana Valley
Mercury mining, uranium mining, chemical and textile industries, oil facilities and processing plants which contribute to the contamination of the soil with highly toxic heavy metals are recognized as environmental chall...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic map, political
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in s...
16 Sep 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits o...
16 Sep 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic conservation area (CAFF), political map
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is a working group under the Arctic Council, for the countries of Russia, Denmark, USA, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Finland and indigenous peoples. Monitoring, assessmen...
16 Sep 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is a working group under the Arctic Council, for the countries of Russia, Denmark, USA, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Finland and indigenous peoples. Monitoring, assessmen...
16 Sep 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti'
Climate change affect the health of the population, not only through heat waves and waterborne diseases, but also as a result of the expansion of geographical areas conducive to the transmission of vector-borne diseases ...
16 Sep 2006 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Assosciate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Uganda: quantifying the importance of environment and natural resources
Estimations calculate that the environment and natural resources sector should contribute USD 791 million to the Uganda GDP, excluding benefits like ecosystem services. In the formal figures, only USD 405 million is reco...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Economic impacts of Gorilla tourism in Uganda
Gorilla tourism in Uganda is primarily taking place in the Mgabinga Gorilla National Park and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, and represents one of the main destinations for wildlife tourism in the country. Estimation...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Rainfall variability and economic growth in Zimbabwe
In Zimbabwe, trends in economic growth have been linked to rainfall variability, which can be attributed to sensitivity in the agricultural sector. Improved water resources management is critical to the stability and sec...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pro-poor growth, absolute and relative definition
Pro-poor growth is a term used for primarily national policies to stimulate economic growth for the benefit of poor people (primarily in the economic sense of poverty). Pro-poor growth can be defined as absolute, where t...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. The majority of the catches in some of the areas of the coast are not primarily by the coastal countries, but rather as in thi...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Export of fisheries products in Africa
For some African countries, particularly in West-Africa and to lesser extent also countries along the Indian Ocean, fisheries contribute significantly to exports. Remarkable is also that the fish sector is important for ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water, irrigated cropland percentage by region
Irrigated land currently produces 40% of the world’s food on 17% of the world’s land. A broadening of irrigation and more effective rain fed agriculture will be necessary to meet the need for increasing agricultural outp...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Household income by source, Masvingo province, Zimbabwe
A study of households (rich and poor) in the Masvingo Province in southeastern Zimbabwe provides a good example of how agricultural income complements wild income and how it compares with other income sources such as wag...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Employment in the travel and tourism industry in Africa
About 6.3 million people work in the travel and tourism industry in Africa, where tourism is highly dependent on natural and cultural environment. However, since travel & tourism touches all sectors of the economy, its r...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of people in the mining sector in selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
There is 1.5 million small-scale miners estimated to work within whole SADC region. Main countries for small-scale mining activities are Tanzania miners and Zimbabwe, where more people are involved in the small-scale, ra...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water requirements for food production 1960-2050
The requirements for water in agriculture in developing countries will need to increase in order to meet the Millennium Development Goal 1, target 2 'Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The composition and levels of wealth per capita for low-income countries
In low-income countries, the natural section represents a quarter of the total wealth, this represents the land that is managed either by household, individual or communally, and the potential for generating income. Phys...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Government revenues from diamond exports in Sierra Leone
The government of Sierra Leone saw a total of USD 5.2 million (2004) in revenues from diamond related activities. This comes in the form of mining, dealer and export license fees and from export taxes. To feed some of th...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
EU fishing agreements to West and Central African countries
Fisheries activities by European Union countries in the seas of West Africa contribute EUR 120 million annually in government revenues. A part of the contribution is set for “targeted actions” to promote local resource m...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Contribution of forest to GDP, and ratio of forest exports out of total exports, for selected countries
Forestry provides more than 8% of the GDP in some of the poorest countries. In most of the developing country production is consumed domestically, but for some countries forestry contributes significantly to total export...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oil and gas development in the Mackenzie valley
The Mackenzie Valley in Arctic Canada, Northwest Territories, represents one of the main sites for development of fuels extraction in North America. Activities, including the development of pipelines, impact indigenous p...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas and wilderness
Wilderness areas in the Arctic, representing vast expanses of tundra and taiga that sees very little human disturbance and stress have been determined by an analysis prepared by the UN Environment Programme World Conserv...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecoregions prioritised for conservation, in the Arctic (WWF Global 200)
Ecoregions represent large areas with geographically characteristic fauna, flora and climate - both marine and terrestrial. This graphic presents the ecoregion definitions identified by the World Wildlife Fund and associ...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Sea vulnerability index
Areas that are vulnerable to pollution from oil and chemical spills where identified using a multiple index in a geographical analysis. Factors, including shoreline sensitivity, corals, benthic conditions, sea birds, mar...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major wilderness areas in the Arctic
The Arctic covers around 33.5 million km2 and holds the largest continuous expanses of unfragmented wilderness in the world, outside of Antarctica. Indeed, seven of the ten largest wilderness areas in the world outside A...
01 Oct 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pathways of contaminants to the Arctic
Many POPs (persistent organic pollutants), heavy metals and other contaminants from emissions further south are accumulated in Arctic food chains and ultimately in indigenous peoples. This process is often referred to as...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Shift in climatic zones, Arctic scenario
The scenarios from the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) project that temperatures will increase dramatically in the Arctic, more than in many other parts of the world. This leads to effects, such as the decrease o...
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas in the terrestrial priority ecoregions in the Arctic
Certain areas have been identified as priority ecoregions for conservation (WWF Global 200) due to their unique biodiversity characteristics. Significant parts of these regions are without any protection, as identified b...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic development scenarios, human impact in 2050
Human activities influence the environment and reduce the value of forests, tundra and plains in terms of original biodiversity and habitat. Primarily larger mammals are hit by the fragmentation caused by roads and pipel...
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas and oil and gas infrastructure
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature increase in the Arctic, 2090 scenario
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090. The Arctic is a place where the effects of climate change are already very visible, and scenar...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Sea - Oil free zones
Proposal from the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) for permanent petroleum-free zones in the Barents Sea. Areas covered with ice for parts of the year are also included in the proposed zones. The map has been drawn u...
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic transportation routes - roads, shipping and pipelines
Land infrastructure represents a fragmentation of the natural ecosystems, splitting up expanses of tundra and taiga - and creates a disturbance in the form of traffic. In addition, it promotes development of side roads, ...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Areas show colours according to the original languages of the respective indigenous peoples, even if they do not speak their languages today. Notes: Overlapping populations are not shown. The map does not claim to show e...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fossil fuel resources and oil and gas production in the Arctic
The Arctic has been opened up for increased exploration of petroleum, gas and mining activities. The Barents Sea, the Mackenzie Valley in Canada and the Alaskan North Slope, are the areas of chief interest at the moment....
06 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz & Hugo Ahlenius UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas in the Arctic
The Arctic is a unique region in the world, with very little human activity and vast expanses of tundra and taiga that presents ecological values. This graphics presents the areas that currently are protected for conserv...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas in the Barents ecoregion
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World economy cartogram
To highlight the distribution of wealth and power in the world of today, this cartogram sizes the countries according to their relative financial status, here presented through gross domestic product (gdp) per capita, of...
13 Feb 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Vladimir S. Tikunov
p08-09-hazards
No data.
13 Feb 2007 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mass balance reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges
Thirty reference glaciers with almost continuous mass balance measurements since 1975 show an average annual mass loss of 0.58 m water equivalent for the past decade (1996–2005), which is more than twice the loss rat...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Time series of freeze-up and break-up dates from selected Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers, 1846–1995
Limited by the availability of detailed observations, most historical evaluations of changes in freshwater ice have focused on relatively simple characteristics, such as the timing of autumn freeze up and spring break up...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Overview of world glaciers and ice caps
By far the largest area of glaciers and ice fields are found in Canada (about 201 000 km2), followed by Alaska (about 75 000 km2) with about 700 km2 in the rest of the USA. Glaciers and ice fields are concentrated in th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mass balance of Maliy Aktru Glacier, Russian Altai
Measurements on this valley-type glacier in the North Chuyskiy Range show a slightly negative annual mass balance trend culminating in an ice loss of about 4 m water equivalent over the period 1964–2005.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Northern Hemisphere snow-cover extent anomalies 1966-2005
Data from satellite monitoring from 1966 to 2005 show that mean monthly snow-cover extent in the Northern Hemisphere is decreasing at a rate of 1.3 per cent per decade. For the calendar year of 2006 average snow-cover ex...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected temperatures in the 21th century
Projected Arctic annual land temperature increases for the first half of the 21st century relative to the average temperature for 1980–99. The average of the IPCC models (the blue line) shows an increase of 3ºC by 2050. ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records
Evidence from tree rings and other temperature proxies suggests that during the previous 500 years global temperatures were 1.0ºC cooler than those of the 20th century during a period roughly from 1300 to 1870 – known as...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements
The figure shows rates at which the ice-sheet mass was estimated to be changing based on radar-altimeter data (black), mass-budget calculations (red), and satellite gravity measurements (blue). Rectangles depict the time...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in permafrost temperatures and active-layer thickness, Northern Tien Shan mountains
Mountain permafrost in Central Asia occupies approximately 3.5 million square kilometers and makes up about 15 per cent of the total permafrost area in the Northern Hemisphere. The climatic variations during the 20th ce...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Cryosphere, components and world maps
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of mi...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Albedo of basic thick sea ice surface types
The albedo for different surface conditions on the sea ice range widely, from roughly 85 per cent of radiation reflected for snow-covered ice to 7 per cent for open water. These two surfaces cover the range from the larg...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in the age of ice on the Arctic Ocean, comparing September ice ages in 1988, 1990, 2001 and 2005
The age of sea ice in the Arctic is changing, and not only the extent and concentrations. Studies show that in recent years there is a higher proportion of younger ice to older ice than was observed in the late 1980s. Th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Melting ice on Mount Kilimanjaro, East Africa
Close to 50 per cent of the glaciers in Africa, on the Rwenzori Mountains, Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro have disappeared, while larger glaciers – particularly on Kilimanjaro – have been fragmented. Changes in glacier area...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected reduction in snow 2080-2100
Using one specific climate change model (ECHAM5) and the SRES A2 emission scenario (run 2) the projected loss of snow amounts to decreases of 60–80 per cent in monthly maximum snow water equivalent over most middle latit...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice-albedo feedback process
In spring, the ice is snow-covered and there is very little open water. Most sunlight is reflected, but some is absorbed. This absorbed sunlight leads to melting, which in turn reduces the ice albedo and increases the am...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Shrinking of Fedchenko Glacier in the Pamirs of Tajikistan
Significant loss of glaciers in Central Asia began around the 1930s, and become more dramatic in the second half of the 20th century and continue into the 21st century. Glacier area was reduced in the Tien Shan and in th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal