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Pilot Area Bathymetry
Bathymetric map of pilot area showing observed nodule abundance.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Key elements of marine reserve design
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Example of a sea-floor manganese nodule mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact
Example of a sea-floor manganese nodule mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact. Note that while mineral processing (concentrating) is part of the minerals life cycle, it is not specific to de...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of exploration tools.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Depth region of potential nodule development
Sea-floor bathymetric map showing where manganese nodules might occur in the Pacific ACP States region. Manganese nodules occur at depths of 4 000 to 6 500m, indicated by dark green in this map.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development
Studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Size of life in the deep oceans
Faunal size classes routinely found on the abyssal plain.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Links between abyssal benthic ecosystems and particulate organic matter
Links between abyssal benthic ecosystems and particulate organic matter. Regression relationships demonstrating the strong dependence of abyssal benthic ecosystem structure and function on the level of particulate organi...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Habitats and biodiversity in nodule regions
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of cobalt production
Current sources of cobalt. After Wilburn 2012.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Increasing land-based cobalt production
Increase in cobalt production. (Wilburn 2012).
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cobalt metal prices between 1976 and 2013
Global cobalt prices 1976-2011.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Metal tonnages in nodules from the Cook Islands compared to global reserves
Current estimates of Cook Islands manganese nodules compared to global reserves. In-place tonnage of cobalt, nickel, copper, and manganese in Cook Islands nodules and a comparison with global land-based reserves and glob...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of nickel and other metals of potential economic importance in deep sea nodules
Concentrations of metals other than iron and manganese. Concentrations are shown in gm/t in nodules from three different nodule regions.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of iron and manganese in deep sea nodules
Varying percentages of iron and manganese in nodules from different environments. The iron/manganese ratio is controlled by the ratio of hydrogenetic/diagenetic input and whether or not the sediments involved in diagenes...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Physical characteristics of manganese nodules
Manganese nodules come in many shapes and sizes. They can be round, oblong, composite, or flat. Their shape can be influenced by the shape of the nucleus, the water content of the surrounding sediment, growth rates, and ...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Average abundance of nodules
Current estimates of average nodule abundance in four major locations.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cobalt, the target mineral for Cook Islands
Current estimated average concentration of various metals in nodules from the Cook Islands
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Nodules in the South Pacific
Location of nodule zones in Oceania.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Growth age and growth rate of nodules.
Growth age versus cumulative growth rate (left) and growth rate versus model age(right) in nodules from the Campbell Nodule Field, New Zealand. Extrapolated ages are based on measured 10Be/9Be ratios and the extrapolate...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Formation environment for manganese nodules
This process takes place in water depths of 4 000 to 6 500 metres.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The road from exploration to exploitation
Permitting process - note these requirements are used as an example of the permitting process. Manganese nodule exploration and exploitation would require a different permitting process, which could also be multi leveled...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Location of Pual Ridge and SuSu Knolls as well as SMS deposits in the eastern Manus Basin
Inset shows location of the eastern Manus Basin in relation to major plate tectonic structures.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Basics of a hydrothermal vent - a Black Smoker
Seawater percolates through the sea floor and is modified by chemical exchange with the surrounding rocks and rising magmatic fluid. The altered seawater is released back into the ocean at the vent site and forms a hydro...
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields
Confirmed vents are those where hydrothermal activity has been observed at the sea floor. The unconfirmed sites are inferred to be active based on plume surveys.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Distribution of known SMS occurrences
Distribution of known sea-floor massive sulphide occurrences in different environments.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Geochemistry of massive sulphides in various tectonic settings
Concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead in sea-floor massive sulphides formed in different geological settings.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Chemoautotrophic symbiotic relationships
These relationships are similar to the symbiosis between shallow-water reef corals and their photosynthesizing algae. Like some species of corals, which must be exposed to sunlight to reap the benefits of their algal pa...
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The road from exploration to exploitation
Environmental impact assessment and environmental permitting process considerations – an example of a permitting process for a proposed SMS project.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Deep sea mining
Example of a sea-floor massive sulphide mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Environmental investigation
List of potential studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of exploration tools
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of marine litter
Marine litter is “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment” (Galgani et al. 2010). It reaches the marine environment through delib...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mediterranean cumulative impact model
None of the factors affecting the Mediterranean Sea and its coasts, along with its inhabitants, exist in isolation. Different pressures act over time and in unison to affect the resilience of ecosystems and their ability...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea
The National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) has undertaken modelling to perform comprehensive spatial analysis and mapping of human pressures throughout the Mediterranean Basin. This work builds o...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Number of species in IUCN Red List categories from Mediterranean countries
Mediterranean species and habitats face a number of pressures from human activities, including over-exploitation; degradation of critical habitats; invasive alien species; pollution, including excess nutrients, toxic pol...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Basin has a wide array of habitats that include sea grass beds, intact rocky shorelines, persistent frontal systems, estuaries, underwater canyons, deepwater coral assemblages and sea mounts (UNEP/MA...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity in the Mediterranean
Species diversity in the Mediterranean Basin tends to increase from east to west with 43 % of known species occurring in the Eastern Mediterranean, 49 % in the Adriatic, and 87 % in the Western Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Composition of benthic communities
Benthic communities are among the first to disappear under conditions of heavy stress. Benthic organisms play an important ecological role by reworking the sediments, which affects the flux of nutrients across the sedi...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Hypoxia in the Mediterranean Sea
Hypoxic (low oxygen)conditions can be caused by eutrophication. The decrease in oxygen is due both to algae reducing dissolved oxygen through respiration and the decomposition of dead algae. In extreme cases, oxygen depl...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface productivity and eutrophic and hypoxic hot spots in the Mediterranean
Eutrophic areas are high primary productivity zones due to excessive nutrients and therefore subject to algal blooms resulting in poor water quality. This can also lead to hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia is the condition w...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per su...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008
Nutrients in seawater present a paradox. Nutrients are, of course, essential for life. In the oligotrophic environment of the Mediterranean, the ecosystems with the most nutrients are generally the most productive and d...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea surface temperature increase
Climate change accelerates the rates of hydrologically-influenced degradation and can compound its impacts. According to CIESM, Western Mediterranean waters are experiencing a substantial warming trend (+0,2°C in last t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea level variations in the Mediterranean
Sea level is rising significantly in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an average 12 cm rise registered on the Levantine coast since 1992. However, causes are not yet known, and a cause-effect relationship with climate cha...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Aquaculture in the Mediterranean and Black seas
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from farmed fish.More than half of aquaculture production in the Mediterranean comes from western Euro...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Aquaculture production in the Mediterranean
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from framed fish. Although the Mediterranean region has a long history of fish farming, aquaculture and ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mediterranean Sea fish landings
Total fish landings increased exponentially from 1950 to 1980, with current production fluctuating around 800.000 tonnes annually (Garcia 2011) during the last three decades. Of that total, 85 % comes from six countri...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Non-indigenous species over the 20th Century
Both the number and rate of non-indigenous introductions to the Mediterranean have been increasing in recent years (UNEP/ MAP 2009). Currently, about a thousand non-indigenous aquatic species have been identified in t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Non-indigenous species
Maritime transportation and aquaculture are the main ways non-indigenous species enter the Western Basin of the Mediterranean. Migration through the Suez Canal is responsible for most non-indigenous species in the Easte...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean
A large proportion of marine litter is plastics (UNEP 2009). The impact of large plastic material on the environment has been widely studied. Effects include entanglement of marine animals in plastic and ingestion of ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil spilled in the Mediterranean
The Eastern Mediterranean accounts for two-thirds of the total quantity spilled in the last decade. If the Lebanese spill of 2006 is taken out of the calculations, the Western Mediterranean, Central Mediterranean, and E...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Possible oil slicks detected by satellites
Illicit vessel discharges can be detected using satellite images, allowing the estimation of the spatial distribution of oil-spill density and the identification of hot spots (Abdulla and Linden 2008). This provides evid...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean concentrations of trace metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
The term trace metal is used here for potentially toxic metals that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissues, and biomagnify in food chains. Metals and organometallic compounds are commonly i...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Wastewater treatment in the Mediterranean coastal cities
The distribution of coastal cities that either lack wastewater treatment facilities or have inadequate treatment facilities (defined as those removing less than 70 to 90 % of the Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)) can be...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Organic water pollutants from point sources
Organic-matter pollution in industrial wastewater was documented by MED POL through an inventory of industrial point sources of pollution in 2003. The areas with the highest Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) are the south...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Environmental hotspots on the Mediterranean coast
A graphic overview identifying the environmental hotspots and ares of major environmental concern on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Chlorinated pesticides and HCB/PCBs releases by sector, 2008
HCB and PCBs are mostly released as unwanted by-products in the cement and metal industry, while chlorinated pesticides are emitted by the organic chemical industry, or by wastewater treatment plants, which may collect ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Major industrial sectors emitting metals in the Mediterranean region
In the Mediterranean countries, according to the National Baseline Budget (NBB) inventory, atmospheric emissions of metals are mostly related to the cement industry (Hg, Cu), production of energy (As, Cd, Ni) and the m...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Coastal transport infrastructure in the Mediterranean
With regards to the coastal zone the development of maritime transport is inherently linked to the development of coastal infrastructures such as ports and motorways and railways connecting inland areas to the ports. Th...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Coastal erosion (EU) and fragile ecosystems in the Mediterranean
Among the many impacts erosion has on coastal ecosystems are the destruction of soil surface layers, leading to groundwater pollution and to reduction of water resources; degradation of dunes, leading to desertification...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fish catch in the Mediterranean Sea sub-regions
Fishing is an important issue for the Mediterranean. Although it puts only a relatively small quantity of produce on the market compared with the demand, it is a significant source of employment and an important componen...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Non-renewable energy resources in the Mediterranean
The active trade and distribution of oil and gas in the Mediterranean Basin, both on land and at sea, involves an extensive network of crude oil pipelines and gas line systems, mainly in the countries of production, link...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Water stress in the Mediterranean basin
An overview of water stress in the Mediterranean basin, highlighting water exploitation as well as existing and planned desalination plants.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Maritime transportation routes in the Mediterranean
Another strong traditional economic sector in the Mediterranean is transport, specifically maritime transport. The Mediterranean Sea is among the world’s busiest waterways, accounting for 15 % of global shipping activi...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The Mediterranean basin, if considered as a single area, is by far the largest global tourism destination, attracting almost a third of the world’s international tourists (306 million out of 980 million worldwide) and ge...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Industrial hazardous waste in the Mediterranean countries
Industry is frequently located along the region’s coasts in areas with high population density, sometimes within urban centres, and often in close proximity to other economic activities like agriculture and tourism. Th...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Agriculture and population in the Mediterranean basin
Agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin, despite many different sub-climates, is mainly rain-fed. Cereals, vegetables, and citrus fruits account for over 85 % of the Mediterranean’s total agricultural production (UNEP/MA...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Human development and ecological footprint in Mediterranean countries
The long history of the Mediterranean has led to a diversification of political and governance approaches, a broad range in economic development, and a diversity of social systems, all of which is reflected in the levels...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Urban population in the Mediterranean countries
Urban development in the Mediterranean has been very rapid. Of the 190 million people added to the population between 1970 and 2010, 163 million live in towns. Urban population (towns with more than 10.000 inhabitants) i...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population density and urban centres in the Mediterranean basin
The total population of the Mediterranean countries grew from 276 million in 1970 to 412 million in 2000 (a 1,35 % increase per year) and to 466 million in 2010. The population is predicted to reach 529 million by 2025....
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Status of Ratification of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The main regulatory instrument aimed at the protection of the Mediterranean marine and coastal environment is the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barce...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Timeline of Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The Barcelona Convention now has a total of seven associated Protocols: • The Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft or Incineration at Sea (Dumping Protocol...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourist pressure on Mediterranean coast
Tourism contributes CO2 emissions, mostly through increased use of air and road transportation. Beyond that, the major direct pressure from coastal tourism on the marine and coastal environment is the demand for space, ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Chlorophyll-a concentration
Climatogical yearly mean of chlorophyll-a concentration.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea
The large-scale circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been described as sub-basin-scale and mesoscale gyres interconnected and bounded by currents and jets with strong seasonal and inter-annual variability (Millot a...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface salinity
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface temperature
A large thermohaline cell (affected by both temperature and salinity) characterises the general circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Circulation is driven by the water balance deficit and by the heat fluxes between the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Total annual precipitations
Mediterranean river discharge patterns depend on properties of the atmospheric water budget as well as on the geographical characteristics of the Mediterranean catchment. A substantial latitudinal gradient characteris...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean annual temperature
Climatically, the Mediterranean is characterised by warm temperatures, winter-dominated rainfall, dry summers, and a profusion of microclimates (UNEP/MAP/MED POL 2003). Mean annual temperature follows a marked north-to-...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Geography, physiography and landscapes
A general overview of the Mediterranean region’s physical geography reveals an irregular, deeply indented coastline, especially in the north, where the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas jut southward from the main ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Items not regulated
The Technical Regulation of the Customs Union establishes common principles and rules for Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. The category ‘On the safety of toys’ contains a list of items not regarded as toys...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentrations of heavy metals in children's toys
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent)...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Impact of toxic metals
The toxic substances found in toys in the study can cause a variety of harmful consequences. Lead is a neurotoxin with no safe level of exposure. Even small amounts in children can give rise to learning difficulties, att...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Movement of the toys
Of the 164 products containing a toxic metal, six originated in the EU, contrary to labeling data. The presence of such substances raises questions over the integrity of EU standards and regulations for children’s produ...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Percentage of analysed toys that exceeded the Russian regulatory limit for toxic metal content in soil
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent)...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Metal contamination in analysed toys
The study found that of the 569 products tested, 104 (18 per cent) exceeded the limit for lead, 18 (3 per cent) exceeded the limit for mercury, 45 (8 per cent) exceeded the limit for arsenic and 75 products (13 per cent...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Origin of the toys
Of the 164 products containing a toxic metal, six originated in the EU, contrary to labeling data. The presence of such substances raises questions over the integrity of EU standards and regulations for children’s produ...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World Toys Market and Population and GDP in 2010
Toys are a big business. Between 2007 and 2010 the global toys market grew by nearly 5 per cent in value terms – from US$78.1 billion to US$83.3 billion. The majority of the toys on the market – many millions of them – a...
25 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Protected areas share of total land area in Tanzania
Tanzania has the second highest proportion of national protected areas among the Basin states, after Zambia, with 28 per cent of the country set aside for national parks, conservation areas, game reserves, and controlle...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Existing and potential hydropower projects on the Zambezi River
Proposed Dams and Hydropower Projects Water has many critical roles in the realization of socio-economic development in southern Africa. One such role is to provide hydropower to help the region to meet its ever-growing ...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Proportion of urban dwellers living in slum conditions in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe has the lowest proportional slum population among the Zambezi Basin states at just 3.4 per cent, down from 4 per cent in 1990. The portion of national population living in urban areas was 36.4 per cent in 200...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal