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Tourism
The Western Balkans has vast potential for sustainable tourism due to its rich cultural heritage and diversity, attractive coastlines and historic cities, and some of Europe’s largest and wildest landscapes. Tourism is o...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Wind power potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Geothermal energy potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Solar electricity potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Infrastructure
In the Western Balkans region, achieving efficient and modern internal transport networks and infrastructure and communication networks between the region’s countries will be a key enabler of economic growth and transiti...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Forest coverage per country
Forests occupy a large proportion of the land area in the Western Balkans – from 28 per cent in Albania up to 44.7 per cent in Kosovo1 (Tomter et al., 2013, World Bank, 2012) – and play a significant social and economic ...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Forest fires
Climate change is also a very real risk for forests and their management. Forest fires are already a major hazard across the Balkans. A significant increase in the number and intensity of wildfires across the region has ...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Protected areas
The number and size of protected areas in the region has been increasing, although the share of protected land is still low if compared with that of the EU. Some protected areas have been established recently or are in t...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Forests and protected areas
The mountain areas of Western Balkan countries are predominantly covered by forests very rich in biodiversity, both in terms of flora and fauna of either global or European conservation importance. There are vast areas o...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Water stress, uses and withdrawal
Presently the Western Balkan countries are some of the most water-rich in Europe with regards to the amount of water available per person (10,600 cubic metres, which is twice the European average) (World Bank, 2003). Mos...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Agriculture
Agriculture still plays an important role in the economies of the region and employment, despite its overall decline compared with industry and the services sector. Almost 50 per cent of land in the region is used for ag...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Projected decline in days with snow cover for the 2050s
Higher temperatures will also shift the snowline upwards. By 2050, a reduction of up to 20 days in snow cover is expected across the Balkans and up to 50 days in the Dinaric Arc (Schneider et al., 2013). More intense rai...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Heavy precipitation change: Projected changes from 1971-2100
Temperature: Predicting the climate in mountainous regions is particularly diffcult due to the complex topography. Mountains create diverse microclimates, which require high density of measurement. The distinct local di...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Projected extreme heatwaves: 2020-2052
The increased incidence and intensity of heatwaves are expected to shift temperature-related mortality from winter to summer, with fewer colder-related deaths and more heat-related ones. In the long-term, the net total n...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Trends in annual temperature & precipitation: 1960-2014
Temperature: Temperatures have risen in the region in the last fifty years, and every country in the region has experienced warming with this trend accelerating in the most recent decades (UNFCCC National Communications...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Energy: Total Final Consumption (TFC)
The energy sector is considered highly important for the economic growth of the Western Balkan countries, where there is large potential for the development of this sector to bring new investments to the region. A high d...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Transport, Infrastructure and Communication
Transportation, infrastructure and communication policies are key to economic growth and transition in the Western Balkans region. The transportation sector, in particular, has significant environmental implications; an ...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Tourism
Albania, Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro have developed active tourism strategies, while Kosovo1 has a draft document. The previous tourism strategy for FYR Macedonia, valid until 2014, has not been updated, although the...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Socio-economic indicators
Today, the countries of the Western Balkans are at a turning point in the development of their economies, societies and environment. A number of social, economic and other drivers will shape the region’s future. Integrat...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
The Western Balkans region
The Western Balkans is a designation used (most commonly by the European Union) for a region which includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo. The region, consider...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Human Health
The laws governing healthcare in the countries of the Western Balkans create the conditions to maintain and improve the health of their citizens. According to these laws, healthcare measures include prevention and protec...
27 Jun 2015 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Nieves Izquierdo
Hindu Kush Himalayan region population and area
The population of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region is approximately 210 million. The communities are largely agrarian, relying heavily on local natural resources and subsistence farming on small plots of land. Like many a...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Extreme rainfall events – Salween and Mekong
Extreme rainfall is increasing in the southernmost part of the Mekong basin and southern and southwestern part of the Salween basin, while extremes are decreasing in most parts of the central and southern parts of the Me...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Salween-Mekong basins climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Salween and Mekong river basins receive an average of 1,226 mm of rainfall per year. Out of the total precipitation, 17% and 69% are received during the pre-monsoon and monsoon season, respectively, whils...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
The Mekong and Salween river basins
Like the Salween and Yangtze rivers, the Mekong river arises in the Three Rivers Source Area high in the Tibetan plateau in Qinghai, China. The Sanjaingyuan National Nature Reserve was established to protect the headwate...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Upper Salween/Mekong basins future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Rainfall projections in summer show an increasing trend over both upper basins, with an increase of about 5–10% over the southern areas where the normal precipitation is low. In the upper part of these basins...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Selected upper river basins of the HICAP study, average 1998–2007
Precipitation falls as either snow or rain, depending on the temperature, which is closely linked to elevation. Snow can be stored as long-term (perennial) snow or become ice and contribute to the growth of glaciers. Sno...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Future contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Projected total flow and average discharge by 2041–2050, RCP 8.5 dry-warm case
Depending on the stream flow composition (glacial melt, snow melt, rainfall, baseflow), different rivers within each of the basins will respond differently to climate change. Currently, the peak discharges within the upp...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Future contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Projected total flow and average discharge by 2041–2050, RCP 4.5 cold-wet case
Depending on the stream flow composition (glacial melt, snow melt, rainfall, baseflow), different rivers within each of the basins will respond differently to climate change. Currently, the peak discharges within the upp...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
The future of climate and water in the HKH region
Temperatures in the upper Indus, upper Ganges, upper Brahmaputra, upper Salween and upper Mekong basins are projected to increase with considerable certainty between 1–2.2°C up until 2050, compared to the baseline period...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Changes in discharge for selected rivers in the HKH region
Shifts in the seasonality of flows can have major implications for regional food security, especially when the timing of peak flows and growing seasons do not coincide. However, this study suggests that significant seaso...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Two terrible earthquakes strike Nepal
The topography, terrain, physical features and changing climate of the Hindu Kush Himalayas also make this region inherently unstable and prone to hazards. These include earthquakes, landslides, floods, droughts and othe...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
How mountain glaciers gain and lose mass
Glaciers respond to climatic changes by gaining or losing mass in the form of snow and ice. Sustained climatic changes will eventually lead to glacier advance or retreat. Glaciers in the HKH region are losing mass and re...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Kailash Sacred Landscape
Spread over an area of about 31,000 km2 the Kailash Sacred Landscape is an ecologically diverse, multi-cultural and fragile landscape. It is located in the remote southwestern portion of the Tibet Autonomous Region of Ch...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Extreme rainfall events – Indus
Extreme rainfall events have increased in intensity over the main mountain range in the upper basin, especially in the eastern section, while the number of rainy days has decreased. In summary, this area now receives mor...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Indus basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Overall, the upper basin receives more precipitation than the lower basin and plays an important role in water availability in the whole basin throughout the year. Within the upper basin, the main mountain ran...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Indus basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Precipitation is projected to increase in summer over the northern, central-eastern and southern parts of the Indus basin, while over the central-western part of the basin it is projected to decrease. In the r...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
The Indus river basin
The Indus is the 12th largest river in the world and has its source at Lake Ngangla Rinco on the Tibetan plateau. The river basin contains seven of the world’s highest peaks in addition to Everest, including K2 (8,600 m)...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
The Hindu Kush Himalayan region
The Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH) are the freshwater towers of South Asia and parts of Southeast Asia. Water originating from their snow, glaciers and rainfall feed the ten largest river systems in Asia. Together these rive...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
HKH climate indicators – Rainfall
The average annual rainfall over the HKH region (5 basins studied here) is approximately 880 mm, with variability of just 5% between years and high spatial variability. The highest rainfall amounts, accounting for more t...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Changing Glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalayas
Glaciers are some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change, as they respond rapidly to changes in temperature and precipitation. Glaciers can provide local water resources in the mountains as well as influence ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
HICAP - Himalayan Climate Change Adaptation Programme
To help meet the challenges emerging in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, a pioneering programme was created to address critical knowledge gaps on water, climate and hydrology, and thus better understand the future impact...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Projected glacial area change by 2050
There has been an almost worldwide recession of glaciers since the last ice age, including within the Himalayas. Most Himalayan glaciers have both retreated and lost mass since the mid-19th century, with some exceptions ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Extreme rainfall events – Ganges
There are changes in extreme rainfall events and the number of rainy days, but these changes vary across the basin, increasing in some locations and decreasing in others. Rainfall intensity shows a decreasing trend over ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Ganges basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: In the summer, both scenarios project a 10–25% increase in rainfall over most of the basin, and exceeding 25% over the central north of the basin. RCP 8.5 results in projections with pockets of lower increase ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
The Ganges river basin
The Ganges is one of the three main river basins in the Hindu Kush Himalayas. Its source is high in the Himalayan mountains where the Bhagirathi river flows out of the Gangotri Glacier in India’s Uttarakhand state. It ta...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Ganges basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Ganges basin receives nearly 1,000 mm of precipitation annually. The greatest amount of rain – 84% of the annual total – falls during the monsoon season. Of the remainder, 7% falls during the premonsoon se...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Asia, the region most hit by natural disasters in 2014
Asia is the most disaster-prone region in the world. In 2014, over 40% of the world’s natural disasters were reported in this region. It is also where most people have been killed, the greatest losses have been incurred,...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Extreme rainfall events – Brahmaputra
No specific trend of change in the amount of rainfall has been observed between the baseline period of 1951–1980 and 1981–2007. Extreme rainfall appears to be decreasing in the north, but increasing over eastern portions...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
The Brahmaputra river basin
Starting from an elevation of 5,300 m, the Brahmaputra river flows across southern Tibet, passing through the Himalayas, descending onto the Assam plain, and finally emptying into the Bay of Bengal. The river undergoes a...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Brahmaputra basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Brahmaputra basin receives an average of just over 1,100 mm of rain annually. Of the annual total, 70% is received during the monsoon season (June– September) and 20% in the pre-monsoon season. Winter is t...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Water use: The case of the Brahmaputra river basin
The population of South Asia has tripled over the last 60 years and now accounts for around a quarter of the world’s population, with China alone accounting for around one-fifth.29 An estimated 210 million people living ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Brahmaputra basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Future scenarios project a 5–25% increase in summer rainfall over most of the basin up until 2050. According to the wettest scenario (RCP 8.5), the increase could be more than 25%, especially in the northern a...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Hydrological charateristics of the HKH region: Selected upper river basins of the HICAP study
The rivers flowing from the Hindu Kush Himalayas provide the region with one of the most valuable resources: fresh water. Ten large Asian river systems originate in the HKH – the Amu Darya, Brahmaputra (Yarlungtsanpo), G...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Population in the river basins of the Hindu Kush Himalayas
The economies of the HKH countries and the livelihoods of the majority of people within them are highly water dependent. Agriculture accounts for about 90% of all water withdrawals in HKH countries (higher than the world...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Tropical Forest in Latin America
The Amazon forest spans more than five million km2 and is by far the world’s largest rainforest area,1 representing some 55–60% of all rainforest. The well-known reduction of deforestation in Brazil since 2004 is globall...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Small Rainforest In a Big World
The science is clear about two things. First, climate change poses a significant threat to human well-being, with developing societies and poor households most vulnerable to harm. The effects of extreme weather events, r...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Logging and Log Laundering
The majority of illegal logging takes place in the tropical forest of the Amazon, Central Africa and Southeast Asia. Recent studies reveal that illegal logging accounts for as much as 50–90% of the total production from ...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
What Threatens the Rainforest?
A recent analysis of ‘Intact Forest Landscapes’ (IFLs) by World resources Institute and others9 warned that pristine forests are being degraded at an alarming rate. Over 1 million km2, an area three times the size of Ger...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Extent of Rainforest and Deforestation in Southeast Asia and Oceania
The pressure on forests in Southeast Asia and Oceania will continue if strict measures are not taken to regulate the operations of plantation companies and extractive industries in natural forest areas. Malaysia, Accordi...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Tropical Forest in Southeast Asia and Oceania
The rainforests of Southeast Asia and Oceania are under immense pressure. This rainforest region has lost a larger proportion of its original forest cover and has higher deforestation than any of the other main rainfores...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Tropical Forest in Central Africa
The Congo Basin rainforest in Central Africa is the second largest rainforest in the world and most of the 90 million people living in the region depend upon it for their livelihood. Deforestation in the Congo Basin has ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Primary Forest Top 20 Countries
Primary forest, sometimes also referred to as ‘intact forest’, can be defined as a forest of native species where the ecological processes have not been significantly disturbed. Primary tropical moist forests, or rainfor...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gildipasi Conservation area, Papua New Guinea
On a patch of grass in a village in the Gildipasi area in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG), stands a row of eight palm-like shrubs with green, red and purple foliage. They are known as tanget in the local language...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
On Both Sides: Indigenous Communities Along the Peru-Brazil Border
For the indigenous peoples of Acre, having secure territories is the basis for establishing sustainable development strategies. They are now struggling to promote coherent policies that reinforce what has already been ac...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Identifying the Clans’ Rights
20% of the Congo Basin forest is classified as productive forest, 12% is set aside for conservation and 10% for multiple use, including community forestry. The remaining 58% has not been classified.43 Conservation areas ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Risky Business 2
Map of Norwegian Pension fund investments in business sectors causing deforestation, 2013. Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global is the biggest sovereign wealth fund in the world. With its heavy investments in the i...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Risky Business
Map of Norwegian Pension fund investments in business sectors causing deforestation, 2013. Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global is the biggest sovereign wealth fund in the world. With its heavy investments in the i...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Forest Cover
The Earth’s most varied and most mysterious ecosystem, the tropical rainforest, has been reduced to half of its original size. Most of this loss has taken place over the past five to six decades. Despite increased awaren...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Shrinking Tropical Forests
The FAO’s Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) reports global gross deforestation to be 130,000 km2 annually for the decade 2000–2010, and 160,000 km2 for the previous decade 1990–2000. Out of this, forest in ‘rai...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Selected Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions in Brazil and Indonesia
Through NICFI, the government of Norway has signed several bilateral agreements promising financial contributions to developing-country efforts to reduce deforestation. The most notable agreements have been with Brazil, ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Carbon Emissions Are Increasing, Emissions From Forests Are Not
According to a study of the three large rainforest regions in the world – the Amazon, the Congo Basin and Southeast Asia – the world’s rainforests contain 42% of all carbon stored in forests, even if they only account fo...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Deforestation Drivers 2
When tropical forests disappear, there is rarely a single cause – a combination of closely related direct and indirect factors bring about deforestation and forest degradation. Complicating the picture further is the fac...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Deforestation Drivers
When tropical forests disappear, there is rarely a single cause – a combination of closely related direct and indirect factors bring about deforestation and forest degradation. Complicating the picture further is the fac...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon Emissions From Gross Forest Loss, 2000-2005
According to the FAO, the world’s forests store around 650 billion tons of carbon; more carbon than what is found in the atmosphere. When forests are burnt or destroyed, the carbon is released as CO2. When forests grow, ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Environmental Crime Network
The global community has gained a better understanding of the scale and nature of environmental crime over the past years. This is evident through the decisions of international bodies such as CITES, ECOSOC, the UN Secur...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Indonesian Forests Exploitation And Degradation
Thick smoke regularly covers large parts of Indonesia, causing smog and poor air quality in cities and towns all through Malaysia and in Singapore. The haze, caused by burning Indonesian tropical forest, visualizes the e...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
World Biomes and Carbon Storage
According to the FAO, the world’s forests store around 650 billion tons of carbon; more carbon than what is found in the atmosphere. When forests are burnt or destroyed, the carbon is released as CO2. When forests grow, ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
How, and How Much, Tropical Forests Absorb and Store Carbon
Half of all the carbon stored in the world’s forests is found in tropical areas. Deforestation and degradation of these tropical forests is the main reason why forestry and land use account for 10–15% of the world’s tota...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Extent of Rainforest and Deforestation in Central Africa
The Congo Basin is the world’s second-largest tropical rainforest, covering approximately 2 million km2. While the rainforests of West Africa and Madagascar are heavily degraded, with only patches of the original forest ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Reducing Deforestation in Brazil
Brazil is the country with the second largest forest cover on Earth, more than 5 million km2. Two thirds of the country’s forest cover is concentrated in the Amazon, which still contains approximately 80% of the original...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Communities Dependent on Forest Resources in Bionga
The local communities and the indigenous groups feel it is important to maintain these traditional forest management practices. As Richard Miniota argues, ‘ICCN [the national conservation authority] can’t be everywhere. ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity is Concentrated in the Rainforest
In general, the diversity of plants and animals increases dramatically from the polar regions to the tropics. But we do not yet know why rainforests are so exceptionally rich in biodiversity. Is it due to inter- species ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Extent of Rainforest And Deforestation in The Amazon Basin
In absolute figures, the Amazon region has been the champion of forest destruction since the 1970s, and Brazil has always been responsible for the lion’s share of this development. Given the continental size of the Amazo...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Penetration of Heat Into Marine Sediments
The left panel shows the increase in temperature with depth for sediments, located at 1000 metres water depth, that are exposed to linear bottom-water warming of 1 °C per 1000 years. Only the deepest gas hydrates dissoci...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Penetration of Heat Into Permafrost-Bearing Sediment
Thawing permafrost acts as a thermal buffer, slowing the diffusion of heat into sediment. Once dissociated, however, gas released at the top of the hydrate stability zone can migrate through the sediment without reenter...
04 Sep 2015 - by A. Taylor, Geological Survey of Canada
Schematic of a Submarine Slide Triggered by Gas Hydrate Dissociation
In theory, gas pressure generated by methane released during gas hydrate dissociation weakens the sediment and provides a glide plane for sediment failure. In practice, gas hydrates are rarely located at sites where slid...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS).
The ESAS makes up a quarter of the Arctic shelf area (Shakhova et al. 2010a), with an average depth of only 58 metres (Jakobsson 2002) and significant riverine input.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Sedimentary Layers and Gas Migration Pathways
In this conceptual model, gas cannot easily reach the sediment surface of the continental slope without being transformed to gas hydrates or diverted upslope by impermeable hydrate-bearing sediment or glacial debris flow...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Evolution of a Pingo-Like Feature (PLF)
As the subsurface warms, the top of the gas hydrate stability zone moves downward (yellow arrows in the left panel). Warming results in gas hydrate dissociation in a gradually thickening zone (brown), releasing gaseous ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Effect of Arctic Bottom-Water Warming on Gas Hydrate Stability
Left: Changes in the thickness of the GHSZ caused by the bottom-water temperature increase depicted in Figure 3.5. Above left: Volumetric GHSZ thickness changes north of 60°N as a function of time, given in absolute numb...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Annual Temperature Increase for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980
Sea-surface and land-surface temperature changes. Change in ocean sea-surface temperature and temperature over land from 2001 to 2005, relative to the 1951-1980 mean (Hansen et al. 2006). The Arctic is experiencing some ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
A Gas Hydrate Prospect Delineated on the Alaska North Slope.
The image shows geophysically-inferred gas hydrate trapped within a sand layer at the intersection of two fault planes (green).
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Resource Pyramid for Gas Hydrates
The total in-place natural gas resources represented globally by methane hydrates are enormous, but they occur in a wide range of accumulation types. As with other petroleum resources, the accumulation types most favorab...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrates Resource Potential by Global Regions
This figure includes only that subset of global in-place gas hydrates that appear to occur at high concentrations in sand-rich reservoirs, the most likely candidates for development.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
General Schematic Showing Typical Modes of Gas Hydrate Occurrence Relative to the Geologic Environment
Thin (A) and thickly veined (B) sediment-displacing gas hydrates (white) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (C) pore-filling gas hydrates in sand; (D) gas hydrate mounds on the sea floor (hydrate has an orange coating from...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Hydrogen to Carbon Ratio of Global Primary Energy, 1860- 2009.
The ratio is expressed in fractional shares of hydrogen and carbon in average primary energy consumed.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrate Production Methods
For each of the three proposed gas hydrate production methods (left frame), conditions within initially stable hydrate-bearing sediment are shifted such that hydrate at that location is no longer stable, and will begin d...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal