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Future contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Projected total flow and average discharge by 2041–2050, RCP 4.5 cold-wet case
Depending on the stream flow composition (glacial melt, snow melt, rainfall, baseflow), different rivers within each of the basins will respond differently to climate change. Currently, the peak discharges within the upp...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The future of climate and water in the HKH region
Temperatures in the upper Indus, upper Ganges, upper Brahmaputra, upper Salween and upper Mekong basins are projected to increase with considerable certainty between 1–2.2°C up until 2050, compared to the baseline period...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Changes in discharge for selected rivers in the HKH region
Shifts in the seasonality of flows can have major implications for regional food security, especially when the timing of peak flows and growing seasons do not coincide. However, this study suggests that significant seaso...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Two terrible earthquakes strike Nepal
The topography, terrain, physical features and changing climate of the Hindu Kush Himalayas also make this region inherently unstable and prone to hazards. These include earthquakes, landslides, floods, droughts and othe...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
How mountain glaciers gain and lose mass
Glaciers respond to climatic changes by gaining or losing mass in the form of snow and ice. Sustained climatic changes will eventually lead to glacier advance or retreat. Glaciers in the HKH region are losing mass and re...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Kailash Sacred Landscape
Spread over an area of about 31,000 km2 the Kailash Sacred Landscape is an ecologically diverse, multi-cultural and fragile landscape. It is located in the remote southwestern portion of the Tibet Autonomous Region of Ch...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Extreme rainfall events – Indus
Extreme rainfall events have increased in intensity over the main mountain range in the upper basin, especially in the eastern section, while the number of rainy days has decreased. In summary, this area now receives mor...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Indus basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Overall, the upper basin receives more precipitation than the lower basin and plays an important role in water availability in the whole basin throughout the year. Within the upper basin, the main mountain ran...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Indus basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Precipitation is projected to increase in summer over the northern, central-eastern and southern parts of the Indus basin, while over the central-western part of the basin it is projected to decrease. In the r...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Indus river basin
The Indus is the 12th largest river in the world and has its source at Lake Ngangla Rinco on the Tibetan plateau. The river basin contains seven of the world’s highest peaks in addition to Everest, including K2 (8,600 m)...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Hindu Kush Himalayan region
The Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH) are the freshwater towers of South Asia and parts of Southeast Asia. Water originating from their snow, glaciers and rainfall feed the ten largest river systems in Asia. Together these rive...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
HKH climate indicators – Rainfall
The average annual rainfall over the HKH region (5 basins studied here) is approximately 880 mm, with variability of just 5% between years and high spatial variability. The highest rainfall amounts, accounting for more t...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Changing Glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalayas
Glaciers are some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change, as they respond rapidly to changes in temperature and precipitation. Glaciers can provide local water resources in the mountains as well as influence ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
HICAP - Himalayan Climate Change Adaptation Programme
To help meet the challenges emerging in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, a pioneering programme was created to address critical knowledge gaps on water, climate and hydrology, and thus better understand the future impact...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Projected glacial area change by 2050
There has been an almost worldwide recession of glaciers since the last ice age, including within the Himalayas. Most Himalayan glaciers have both retreated and lost mass since the mid-19th century, with some exceptions ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Extreme rainfall events – Ganges
There are changes in extreme rainfall events and the number of rainy days, but these changes vary across the basin, increasing in some locations and decreasing in others. Rainfall intensity shows a decreasing trend over ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Ganges basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: In the summer, both scenarios project a 10–25% increase in rainfall over most of the basin, and exceeding 25% over the central north of the basin. RCP 8.5 results in projections with pockets of lower increase ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Ganges river basin
The Ganges is one of the three main river basins in the Hindu Kush Himalayas. Its source is high in the Himalayan mountains where the Bhagirathi river flows out of the Gangotri Glacier in India’s Uttarakhand state. It ta...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Ganges basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Ganges basin receives nearly 1,000 mm of precipitation annually. The greatest amount of rain – 84% of the annual total – falls during the monsoon season. Of the remainder, 7% falls during the premonsoon se...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Asia, the region most hit by natural disasters in 2014
Asia is the most disaster-prone region in the world. In 2014, over 40% of the world’s natural disasters were reported in this region. It is also where most people have been killed, the greatest losses have been incurred,...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Extreme rainfall events – Brahmaputra
No specific trend of change in the amount of rainfall has been observed between the baseline period of 1951–1980 and 1981–2007. Extreme rainfall appears to be decreasing in the north, but increasing over eastern portions...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Brahmaputra river basin
Starting from an elevation of 5,300 m, the Brahmaputra river flows across southern Tibet, passing through the Himalayas, descending onto the Assam plain, and finally emptying into the Bay of Bengal. The river undergoes a...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Brahmaputra basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Brahmaputra basin receives an average of just over 1,100 mm of rain annually. Of the annual total, 70% is received during the monsoon season (June– September) and 20% in the pre-monsoon season. Winter is t...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Water use: The case of the Brahmaputra river basin
The population of South Asia has tripled over the last 60 years and now accounts for around a quarter of the world’s population, with China alone accounting for around one-fifth.29 An estimated 210 million people living ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Brahmaputra basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Future scenarios project a 5–25% increase in summer rainfall over most of the basin up until 2050. According to the wettest scenario (RCP 8.5), the increase could be more than 25%, especially in the northern a...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Hydrological charateristics of the HKH region: Selected upper river basins of the HICAP study
The rivers flowing from the Hindu Kush Himalayas provide the region with one of the most valuable resources: fresh water. Ten large Asian river systems originate in the HKH – the Amu Darya, Brahmaputra (Yarlungtsanpo), G...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Population in the river basins of the Hindu Kush Himalayas
The economies of the HKH countries and the livelihoods of the majority of people within them are highly water dependent. Agriculture accounts for about 90% of all water withdrawals in HKH countries (higher than the world...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Tropical Forest in Latin America
The Amazon forest spans more than five million km2 and is by far the world’s largest rainforest area,1 representing some 55–60% of all rainforest. The well-known reduction of deforestation in Brazil since 2004 is globall...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Small Rainforest In a Big World
The science is clear about two things. First, climate change poses a significant threat to human well-being, with developing societies and poor households most vulnerable to harm. The effects of extreme weather events, r...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Logging and Log Laundering
The majority of illegal logging takes place in the tropical forest of the Amazon, Central Africa and Southeast Asia. Recent studies reveal that illegal logging accounts for as much as 50–90% of the total production from ...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
What Threatens the Rainforest?
A recent analysis of ‘Intact Forest Landscapes’ (IFLs) by World resources Institute and others9 warned that pristine forests are being degraded at an alarming rate. Over 1 million km2, an area three times the size of Ger...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Extent of Rainforest and Deforestation in Southeast Asia and Oceania
The pressure on forests in Southeast Asia and Oceania will continue if strict measures are not taken to regulate the operations of plantation companies and extractive industries in natural forest areas. Malaysia, Accordi...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Tropical Forest in Southeast Asia and Oceania
The rainforests of Southeast Asia and Oceania are under immense pressure. This rainforest region has lost a larger proportion of its original forest cover and has higher deforestation than any of the other main rainfores...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Tropical Forest in Central Africa
The Congo Basin rainforest in Central Africa is the second largest rainforest in the world and most of the 90 million people living in the region depend upon it for their livelihood. Deforestation in the Congo Basin has ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Primary Forest Top 20 Countries
Primary forest, sometimes also referred to as ‘intact forest’, can be defined as a forest of native species where the ecological processes have not been significantly disturbed. Primary tropical moist forests, or rainfor...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gildipasi Conservation area, Papua New Guinea
On a patch of grass in a village in the Gildipasi area in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG), stands a row of eight palm-like shrubs with green, red and purple foliage. They are known as tanget in the local language...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
On Both Sides: Indigenous Communities Along the Peru-Brazil Border
For the indigenous peoples of Acre, having secure territories is the basis for establishing sustainable development strategies. They are now struggling to promote coherent policies that reinforce what has already been ac...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Identifying the Clans’ Rights
20% of the Congo Basin forest is classified as productive forest, 12% is set aside for conservation and 10% for multiple use, including community forestry. The remaining 58% has not been classified.43 Conservation areas ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Risky Business 2
Map of Norwegian Pension fund investments in business sectors causing deforestation, 2013. Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global is the biggest sovereign wealth fund in the world. With its heavy investments in the i...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Risky Business
Map of Norwegian Pension fund investments in business sectors causing deforestation, 2013. Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global is the biggest sovereign wealth fund in the world. With its heavy investments in the i...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Forest Cover
The Earth’s most varied and most mysterious ecosystem, the tropical rainforest, has been reduced to half of its original size. Most of this loss has taken place over the past five to six decades. Despite increased awaren...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Shrinking Tropical Forests
The FAO’s Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) reports global gross deforestation to be 130,000 km2 annually for the decade 2000–2010, and 160,000 km2 for the previous decade 1990–2000. Out of this, forest in ‘rai...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Selected Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions in Brazil and Indonesia
Through NICFI, the government of Norway has signed several bilateral agreements promising financial contributions to developing-country efforts to reduce deforestation. The most notable agreements have been with Brazil, ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Carbon Emissions Are Increasing, Emissions From Forests Are Not
According to a study of the three large rainforest regions in the world – the Amazon, the Congo Basin and Southeast Asia – the world’s rainforests contain 42% of all carbon stored in forests, even if they only account fo...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Deforestation Drivers 2
When tropical forests disappear, there is rarely a single cause – a combination of closely related direct and indirect factors bring about deforestation and forest degradation. Complicating the picture further is the fac...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Deforestation Drivers
When tropical forests disappear, there is rarely a single cause – a combination of closely related direct and indirect factors bring about deforestation and forest degradation. Complicating the picture further is the fac...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon Emissions From Gross Forest Loss, 2000-2005
According to the FAO, the world’s forests store around 650 billion tons of carbon; more carbon than what is found in the atmosphere. When forests are burnt or destroyed, the carbon is released as CO2. When forests grow, ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Environmental Crime Network
The global community has gained a better understanding of the scale and nature of environmental crime over the past years. This is evident through the decisions of international bodies such as CITES, ECOSOC, the UN Secur...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Indonesian Forests Exploitation And Degradation
Thick smoke regularly covers large parts of Indonesia, causing smog and poor air quality in cities and towns all through Malaysia and in Singapore. The haze, caused by burning Indonesian tropical forest, visualizes the e...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
World Biomes and Carbon Storage
According to the FAO, the world’s forests store around 650 billion tons of carbon; more carbon than what is found in the atmosphere. When forests are burnt or destroyed, the carbon is released as CO2. When forests grow, ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
How, and How Much, Tropical Forests Absorb and Store Carbon
Half of all the carbon stored in the world’s forests is found in tropical areas. Deforestation and degradation of these tropical forests is the main reason why forestry and land use account for 10–15% of the world’s tota...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Extent of Rainforest and Deforestation in Central Africa
The Congo Basin is the world’s second-largest tropical rainforest, covering approximately 2 million km2. While the rainforests of West Africa and Madagascar are heavily degraded, with only patches of the original forest ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Reducing Deforestation in Brazil
Brazil is the country with the second largest forest cover on Earth, more than 5 million km2. Two thirds of the country’s forest cover is concentrated in the Amazon, which still contains approximately 80% of the original...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Communities Dependent on Forest Resources in Bionga
The local communities and the indigenous groups feel it is important to maintain these traditional forest management practices. As Richard Miniota argues, ‘ICCN [the national conservation authority] can’t be everywhere. ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity is Concentrated in the Rainforest
In general, the diversity of plants and animals increases dramatically from the polar regions to the tropics. But we do not yet know why rainforests are so exceptionally rich in biodiversity. Is it due to inter- species ...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Extent of Rainforest And Deforestation in The Amazon Basin
In absolute figures, the Amazon region has been the champion of forest destruction since the 1970s, and Brazil has always been responsible for the lion’s share of this development. Given the continental size of the Amazo...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Penetration of Heat Into Marine Sediments
The left panel shows the increase in temperature with depth for sediments, located at 1000 metres water depth, that are exposed to linear bottom-water warming of 1 °C per 1000 years. Only the deepest gas hydrates dissoci...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Penetration of Heat Into Permafrost-Bearing Sediment
Thawing permafrost acts as a thermal buffer, slowing the diffusion of heat into sediment. Once dissociated, however, gas released at the top of the hydrate stability zone can migrate through the sediment without reenter...
04 Sep 2015 - by A. Taylor, Geological Survey of Canada
Schematic of a Submarine Slide Triggered by Gas Hydrate Dissociation
In theory, gas pressure generated by methane released during gas hydrate dissociation weakens the sediment and provides a glide plane for sediment failure. In practice, gas hydrates are rarely located at sites where slid...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS).
The ESAS makes up a quarter of the Arctic shelf area (Shakhova et al. 2010a), with an average depth of only 58 metres (Jakobsson 2002) and significant riverine input.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Sedimentary Layers and Gas Migration Pathways
In this conceptual model, gas cannot easily reach the sediment surface of the continental slope without being transformed to gas hydrates or diverted upslope by impermeable hydrate-bearing sediment or glacial debris flow...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Evolution of a Pingo-Like Feature (PLF)
As the subsurface warms, the top of the gas hydrate stability zone moves downward (yellow arrows in the left panel). Warming results in gas hydrate dissociation in a gradually thickening zone (brown), releasing gaseous ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Effect of Arctic Bottom-Water Warming on Gas Hydrate Stability
Left: Changes in the thickness of the GHSZ caused by the bottom-water temperature increase depicted in Figure 3.5. Above left: Volumetric GHSZ thickness changes north of 60°N as a function of time, given in absolute numb...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Annual Temperature Increase for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980
Sea-surface and land-surface temperature changes. Change in ocean sea-surface temperature and temperature over land from 2001 to 2005, relative to the 1951-1980 mean (Hansen et al. 2006). The Arctic is experiencing some ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
A Gas Hydrate Prospect Delineated on the Alaska North Slope.
The image shows geophysically-inferred gas hydrate trapped within a sand layer at the intersection of two fault planes (green).
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Resource Pyramid for Gas Hydrates
The total in-place natural gas resources represented globally by methane hydrates are enormous, but they occur in a wide range of accumulation types. As with other petroleum resources, the accumulation types most favorab...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrates Resource Potential by Global Regions
This figure includes only that subset of global in-place gas hydrates that appear to occur at high concentrations in sand-rich reservoirs, the most likely candidates for development.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
General Schematic Showing Typical Modes of Gas Hydrate Occurrence Relative to the Geologic Environment
Thin (A) and thickly veined (B) sediment-displacing gas hydrates (white) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (C) pore-filling gas hydrates in sand; (D) gas hydrate mounds on the sea floor (hydrate has an orange coating from...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Hydrogen to Carbon Ratio of Global Primary Energy, 1860- 2009.
The ratio is expressed in fractional shares of hydrogen and carbon in average primary energy consumed.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrate Production Methods
For each of the three proposed gas hydrate production methods (left frame), conditions within initially stable hydrate-bearing sediment are shifted such that hydrate at that location is no longer stable, and will begin d...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Host Sediment Control of Gas Hydrate Occurrence Form
Gas hydrates are primarily found in unconsolidated sands (upper row) or clays (centre row). Hydrates also commonly occur in thin, hydrate-bearing sand layers separated by fine-grained sediment (upper right), and can even...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
First Order Reservoir Simulation Modeling
Figure to assess the response of a gas hydrate reservoir to depressurization-based production. Frame A shows gas and water production rates, frame B shows reservoir pressure and temperature evolution, frame C shows grou...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Well Completion for Gas Hydrate Production
Well schematics show possible horizontal and vertical well completions for a gas hydrate production well employing the depressurization technique.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrade Drilling and Production Problems
The figure shows typical gas-hydrate-related drilling and production problems encountered during drilling programs in the Arctic (from Collett and Dallimore 2002). Gas release scenario (left): over-pressured free gas is ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Stability Conditions for Gas Hydrates
Idealized phase diagrams illustrating where methane hydrate is stable in marine and permafrost settings. Hydrate can exist at depths where the temperature (blue curve) is less than the maximum stability temperature for g...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Primary Energy Consumption and Global CO2 Emission
The figure on the left shows historical consumption from 1900 to 2009 and the GEA scenario’s projections for the period 2010 to 2050. The figure on the right shows global carbon dioxide emissions, both historical since 1...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Share in Total Primary Energy
Expressed in fractional market shares.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Selected Gas Hydrate Study Areas
The yellow squares indicate a few of the historically-significant gas hydrate research sites, along with locations where gas hydrates have been recovered from depths greater than 50 meters beneath the sediment surface. R...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrate Landmark Findings
Timeline of major milestones in gas hydrate (GH) research.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane-rich Plumes in Water Column on the West Svalbard Continental Margin
A: Location of survey area west of Svalbard; bathymetry (Jakobsson et al. 2008). B: Positions of acoustically imaged plumes are depicted by “pins” superimposed on a perspective view of the bathymetry of part of the area ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Future Change in Bottom-Water Temperatures at the Sea Floor
Changes are given in °C per 100 years as predicted by the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) (Park et al. 2009), for a pCO2 increase scenario (1 per cent increase until current-day values are doubled). Values are an ensemble avera...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Arctic Surface Air-Temperature Change
Change is measured relative to measurements from 1901 to 1950 (black curve). Orange region is the 2001-2100 prediction given the A1B scenario (pCO2 increase to 700 ppm by 2100). Bars to the right indicate the predictions...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Predicted Increase in Global Mean Surface-Air Temperatures
Increases are relative to 1980–1999 for different emission scenarios (IPCC 2007). The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (pCO2) is assumed to attain a value of 800 to 1 000 parts per million (ppm) at th...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane Release From Sediment
This schematic cross-section of a high-latitude ocean margin, broken into five distinct zones, contains four potential methane sources. Methane is released from sediment along much of the cross-section, but over the next...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Chemosynthetic Habitats
Chemosynthetic habitats generated by different fluid flow rates, including transport of methane, as well as the sulphide resulting from anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), are colonized by different fauna. Left: free-l...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Morphology of a Tube Worm
Tube worms host their symbionts in the trophosome, a specialized organ. Oxygen (O2), sulphide (HS–), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are taken up from the surrounding water through the animal’s plume and delivered via the blood...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane Consumption in the Environment
Near sea-floor methane hydrate is being continuously broken down, releasing methane dissolved in pore water. As methane moves through sediment into the water column and atmosphere, it is consumed in a variety of chemical...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Primary Sources of Methane Release
Methane emissions due to human-related activities, shown to the right of the volcano, account for approximately 70 per cent of the total emissions (Reeburgh 2007; Colwell and Ussler III 2010). Gas Hydrates are currently ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Carbon Cycle
Carbon moves through the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere.Gas hydrates (orange) are shown in marine sediments, but are also buried beneath permafrost sediment in Arctic regions. Although gas hydrates are...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon Mass in Gas-Hydrate-Bound Methane Compared to Other Sources of Organic Carbon
A 2008 workshop estimated the global methane content in gas hydrates to range from 1 000 to 10 000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC) (Krey et al. 2009). Taking a midrange value of 5 000 GtC as an example, gas hydrates would ac...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Estimates of the Methane Held in Hydrates Worldwide
Early estimates for marine hydrates (encompassed by the green region), made before hydrate had been recovered in the marine environment, are high because they assume gas hydrates exist in essentially all the world’s ocea...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Fate of Buried Organic Matter
Buried organic material is degraded by microbes, thermogenically altered by heat and pressure, or buried more deeply and lost to the surface carbon cycle. Methane produced during microbial (also called “biogenic”) and th...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Deaths Caused by Household Air Pollution, by Region 2012.
Of the 4.3 million deaths attributable to HAP, almost all are in low and middle-income countries.
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Population Increase Effects on the Environment
As the population in some parts of the world increases, so does the use of inefficient fuels for cooking and lighting. This creates household air pollution that threatens the lives and health of millions. It also contrib...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Population Using Solid Fuels (%), 2012
The use of solid fuels for cooking and heating continues in developed countries but is concentrated in the developing world, primarily in Africa and South Asia. These fuels are often the main source of household energy i...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
PM2.5 and PM10 Size
PM2.5 and PM10 are both much small than the diameter of a human hair. Both are dangerous to inhale. PM2.5 is of most concern given its ability to penetrate deep into the human lungs and bloodstreams and is dangerous in a...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
PM2.5 Emissions from Energy Production, Manufacturing and Fuel Production, 2005
Small particles contribute to ambient air pollution (smog). The biggest contributor to PM2.5 emissions in areas like North America, Europe and China is the burning of coal.
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Household Air Pollution
Nearly 3 billion people continue to rely on biomass for cooking. This exposes them to a number of dangerous pollutants that have been linked to lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer ...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal