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Market Landscape Market Landscape
Landscape beauty services are dependent on the preservation of nature and the beauty of intact and uninterrupted landscapes. Preserving nature’s bounty is not only important for traditional livelihoods but also to safeguard recreational, touristic, cultural and spiritual uses.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Ecuador Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini Yasaní Ecuador Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini Yasaní
The Yasuní National Park in Ecuador is generally considered to be one of the richest biodiversity ‘hot spots’ in the world. It is also rich in natural resources, including oil. In 2007 Ecuador proposed a plan for a form of national scale PES, under which it would stop oil exploitation in the region if sufficient funds could be raised to compensate for lost oil revenues.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Catskill-Delaware watershed: champagne drinking water for New York City Catskill-Delaware watershed: champagne drinking water for New York City
In the 1980s New York City was in need of new legislation on water management as water quality showed signs of deterioration. Rather than investing in new filtration plants, officials adopted a more progressive approach which would protect the water at source, by acquiring some upstate watershed land and protecting the surrounding forest.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Watershed Market Watershed Market
A watershed is an area of land which feeds water into a river or a lake. A variety of ecosystems can make up a watershed, including various bodies of water, wetlands, grasslands, forests and cultivated areas. Watersheds provide a wide range of goods and services which support human welfare.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Scolel Té: growing up with trees Scolel Té: growing up with trees
The Scolel Té Plan Vivo project involves over 2,500 families and nearly 50 communities in the central and northern Chiapas and northeast Oaxaca areas of southern Mexico. It is a model for community-based, sustainable land use and sequestration projects in developing countries.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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23 Ecosystem services 23 Ecosystem services
The concepts within ecosystem services are clustered in four main categories: provisioning services, regulatory services, cultural services, and supporting services. In addition to this, ecosystem services can also be categorized by the market segments under which they fall. This figure shows 23 of the most key ecosystem services and the different ways they can be categorized.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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The 3 Capital fluxes The 3 Capital fluxes
Within the topic of payment for ecosystem services, it is important to consider the complexity of interactions between the three main capitals (natural capital, economic capital and social capital). Services and needs that lie within each of the three capitals rely on fluxes from the other two services; balancing these fluxes allows the system to both successfully and sustainably function.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Ivory transaction index Ivory transaction index
Overall, using weight and transaction indices derived from the ETIS data, illegal ivory trade activity remained at or slightly above 1998 levels up to 2006. Subsequently, a gradual increase in illegal ivory trade activity commences, becoming progressively greater in each successive year, with a major surge in 2011. The frequency of illegal ivory trade transactions in 2011 was roughly three times greater than the level of illegal trade activity...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Percentage of elephants illegally killed in Africa Percentage of elephants illegally killed in Africa
Since 2010, the percentage of elephants being killed illegally at MIKE sites across Africa has been higher than their natural reproduction rate.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Trend in proportion of illegally killed elephants (PIKE) in Africa Trend in proportion of illegally killed elephants (PIKE) in Africa
The PIKE trend across Africa show a clear increase in the proportion of illegally killed elephants from 2006 and up to 2012.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Asian elephant population estimates Asian elephant population estimates
Asian elephants occur in isolated populations in 13 range States, with an approximate total range area of almost 880,000 square kilometres equivalent to only one-tenth of the historical range as defined by the IUCN. Today Asian elephants occur in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Feral populations occur on some of the Andaman Islan...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Large scale ivory seizures Large scale ivory seizures
Large-scale ivory shipments originating from Africa have almost exclusively been seized in containers at major ports in Asia, where there is an established customs inspection systems. Shipments have mainly originated from not only Dar es Salaam or Mombasa, but also West Africa.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant population by country African elephant population by country
The overall sub-regional distribution of the African elephant indicates that approximately half of the total elephant population is found in Southern Africa, while less than 30 per cent are found in Eastern Africa. West Africa is home to the smallest number of elephants, only two per cent of the total number of elephants on the continent. The remaining 20 per cent of African elephants are found in Central Africa, although elephant numbers from t...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant range and population distribution African elephant range and population distribution
Elephant population distribution and approximate core ranges of elephants in Africa. Individuals and minor groups of elephants can be found outside these ranges.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant range and population density African elephant range and population density
While poaching is an immediate and direct threat to the African elephant, range and habitat loss are the most significant longterm threat to the species’ survival. There is good reason to believe that the total elephant range in Africa has been in decline over the last two decades. In 1995, the total range area of the African elephant was estimated at 26 per cent of the continent’s total land cover (Said et al. 1995). However, the latest ...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant population: a different count African elephant population: a different count
The latest estimates of the total number of African elephants range between 419,000 and 650,000. Overall data reliability at the continental level has declined as many important populations have not been surveyed for over ten years.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Estimates of illegally killed elephants in 2011 Estimates of illegally killed elephants in 2011
In 2011, approximately 7.4 per cent of the total elephant populations in African MIKE sites were killed illegally. This is a significant increase from 2010, when the average number of elephants killed was estimated to be 11,500. Healthy elephant populations have a natural annual growth rate of between 5 and 6 per cent (Dunham 2012), or a theoretical maximum of 7 per cent (Hanks 1973). Thus the 7.4 per cent estimated illegal off-take in 2011 i...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Percentage of illegally killed elephants per sub-region Percentage of illegally killed elephants per sub-region
Central Africa has shown worrying poaching trends for some time, and has consistently displayed the highest levels of poaching in any sub-region since MIKE monitoring began. In 2006, PIKE levels were at 0.5, meaning that about half the elephant carcasses encountered on patrol in MIKE sites were reported as illegally killed. In 2011, however, PIKE levels had risen to 0.9. This extremely high PIKE level exceeds any of poaching data is becoming appa...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephants threatened by conflict African elephants threatened by conflict
The African continent has struggled with political instability and conflict in recent history. Such instability encourages criminal activity including wildlife trafficking, poaching and other environmental crimes (Bouché et al. 2012; Chase and Beyers et al. 2011; Griffin 2011). While there are few big conflicts in Southern Africa today, civil unrest and sporadic fighting continues in the Congo Basin, including in the Democratic Republic of Con...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Illegal ivory trafficking routes Illegal ivory trafficking routes
Primary and secondary ivory smuggling routes in Africa based on a wide range of sources including both ETIS seizures and criminal intelligence.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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