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Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM)
Mercury residues from mining and industrial processing, as well as mercury in waste, have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites all over the world. Polluted soil can contain as much as 400 grammes of mercury per hectare, as measured at a Venezuelan gold mining site (Garcia-Sanchez et al., 2006). Most mercury contamination sites are concentrated in the industrial areas of North America, Europe and Asia; and in sub-Saharan Africa and Sou...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Long-range mercury transport Long-range mercury transport
Coal burning for electric power generation and for industrial purposes continues to increase, especially in Asia (UNEP, 2013). Assessing the global spread and fate of mercury is a challenging task, as there are few studies available about net deposition of different forms of mercury in air, water and land. For example, when mercury moves from air to water and land it is generally in an oxidized gaseous or particle form, whereas when it is remitte...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Emissions to air Emissions to air
Emissions of mercury from ASGM reported for 2010 are more than twice those reported for 2005. While the higher price of gold and increased rural poverty may indeed have caused more activity in this sector, the increased emissions estimates are thought to explained mainly by better data (UNEP, 2013).
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Regional mercury emissions in 2010 Regional mercury emissions in 2010
Global emissions of mercury to the air in 2010 from human activities were estimated at 1,960 tonnes. Although it is difficult to compare emissions estimates for individual years, total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere appear to have been relatively stable from 1990 to 2010 (UNEP, 2013). There has been a large shift in regional patterns, however. Economic growth has driven an increase in anthropogenic emissions in Southern and ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mercury and human health Mercury and human health
Mercury can enter the food chain either from agricultural prod- ucts or from seafood. It was widely used in agriculture, and at least 459 people are known to have died in Iraq after grain treated with a fungicide containing mercury was imported in 1971 and used to make flour (Greenwood, 1985). Those who showed the greatest effects were the children of women who had eaten contaminated bread during pregnancy. Human groups at risk include the mil...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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How mercury can enter our environment How mercury can enter our environment
While some pollutants are restricted in their range and in the size and number of the population they affect, mercury is not one of them. Wherever it is mined, used or discarded, it is liable – in the absence of effective disposal methods – to finish up thousands of kilometers away because of its propensity to travel through air and water. Beyond that, it reaches the environment more often after being unintentionally emitted than through negligen...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Industrial processes: input and output of mercury Industrial processes: input and output of mercury
Socio-economic conditions are often barriers to the adoption of better practices (UNEP, 2012). This figure shows the inputs and outputs of mercury by industries.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global mercury supply Global mercury supply
Artisanal and small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury, using it to separate the metal from the ore. Though mercury mining and by-products were very high in the eighties, since then, mining practices have reduced and recycling is on the rise.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global mercury demand in 2011 Global mercury demand in 2011
In 2011, the largest demands in mercury were artisanal & small-scale gold mining as well as vinyl chloride monomers.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global mercury consumption in 2005 Global mercury consumption in 2005
Most of the world’s estimated 600,000 tonnes of mercury de- posits are found in a handful of countries, including China, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Slovenia, Spain and Ukraine (USGS, 2012). Primary mining (where mercury is the target ore, not extracted as a byproduct) is now limited to even fewer countries, with only one (Kyrgyzstan) still exporting. Given present trends, it appears likely that most uses of mercury will continue to decl...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mercury in food and products Mercury in food and products
Even now, mercury is commonplace in daily life. Electrical and electronic devices, switches (including thermostats) and relays, measuring and control equipment, energy- efficient fluorescent light bulbs, batteries, mascara, skin- lightening creams and other cosmetics which contain mercury, dental fillings and a host of other consumables are used across the globe. Food products obtained from fish, terrestrial mammals and other products such as ric...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global annual mercury mining production Global annual mercury mining production
Global annual mercury production was at its peak in 1971 and has since significantly decreased. In 2005, UNEP estimated global annual mercury demand at be- tween 3,000 and 3,900 tonnes (UNEP, 2006). Demand has fallen significantly in the last 50 years, from 9,000 tonnes a year in the 1960s to 7,000 in the 1980s and 4,000 a decade later (UNEP, 2006). A growing understanding of the risks posed by the toxicity of mercury, the increasing availability...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global cases of mercury poisoning incidents Global cases of mercury poisoning incidents
Mercury poisoning incidents. As elemental mercury is eligible for long distance transport, it can also accumulate in various forms. This figure illustrates its global distribution as well as the number of affected people along with the fatalities.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Minamata mercury events timeline Minamata mercury events timeline
The events which lead to the government's decision on the revitalization and development of local communities.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Minamata mercury events timeline Minamata mercury events timeline
The events which lead to the government's decision on the revitalization and development of local communities.
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Trees for Global Benefits, Uganda Trees for Global Benefits, Uganda
In Mitooma-Bushenyi in Uganda, the environmental conservation organisation Ecotrust has agreed with local landowners that in exchange for planting native species they will receive payments based on the amount of carbon their trees capture. After 15 years, those involved in the PES will be able to harvest the timber from the land. The carbon credits are delivered to Ecotrust, which then deals with the credit buyers.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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GDP of the Poor: estimates for ecosystem-service dependence GDP of the Poor: estimates for ecosystem-service dependence
Poverty often occurs when links between ecosystem services and human well-being have been damaged or broken. Healthy ecosystems are ‘the wealth of the poor’. It has been estimated that ecosystem services and other non- marketed goods make up between 50 and 90 per cent of the total source of livelihoods among poor rural and forest-dwelling households – the so-called ‘GDP of the poor’ (TEEB 2010). This contrasts with various national GDP figures wh...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tmatboey - Cambodia Tmatboey - Cambodia
Cambodia’s deciduous forests are some of the most important conservation areas in southeast Asia, home to many mammals and water birds. Deforestation, hunting and the advance of settlers into forest areas have endangered the survival of threatened species in the region. In 2002, a series of pilot PES schemes, supported by the Government and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), were set up in protected areas. Under the community-based ecotouri...
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Market bundled Market bundled
For the most part PES schemes have tended to focus on a single ecosystem service, whether it is connected with the conservation of a watershed, the restoration of a forest or the preservation of a wildlife area for biodiversity or aesthetic purposes. A combined PES scheme may be able to join several services and provide sufficient, robust and sustainable economic and conservation opportunities.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Simanjiro Conservation Easement, Tanzania Simanjiro Conservation Easement, Tanzania
Terrat is a village of some 3 500 people involved mainly in pastoral activities in northern Tanzania. In 2004, a group of five tourism operators entered into a PES type agreement with the community, with villagers helping conserve wildlife in exchange for annual financial payments. The Wildlife Conservation Society separately agreed to fund four village scouts to carry out wildlife monitoring and other activities.
17 Sep 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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