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Population distribution in the Zambezi River Basin Population distribution in the Zambezi River Basin
Population distribution is uneven in the basin, with large areas uninhabited and reserved for wildlife. In 1998, the average population density in the basin was 24 people per sq km, and this increased to 28.75 people per sq km in 2005 before reaching 30.26 people per sq km in 2008 (Chenje 2000; SARDC and HBS 2010). There are disparities in population densities between countries in the basin, with Malawi being the most densely populated country. I...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Reported malaria cases in Zambia Reported malaria cases in Zambia
The health of millions of people in the Zambezi basin is under threat due to an increase in the occurrence and spread of water-borne, vector-borne and respiratory diseases resulting from climate change related events (Boko and others 2007 in SARDC and HBS 2010). As a result of rising temperatures, it is predicted that the malaria-carrying female Anopheles mosquito will spread to parts of the region where it has not been found before by 2100 and...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Popoulation density increasing, per capita land area shrinking in Zambezi River Basin Popoulation density increasing, per capita land area shrinking in Zambezi River Basin
The population of the Zambezi River Basin grew from 31.7 million in 1998 to 38.4 million in 2005, before reaching 40 million in 2008. It is projected that by 2025 the population will reach 51 million (Chenje 2000; SADC and ZRA 2007; SARDC and HBS 2010). Although sparsely populated, average population densities in the basin show a consistent shrinkage in per capita land availability, which is projected to decline to 2.56 hectares/ person in 2025 ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Forest cover in Zambezi basin countries Forest cover in Zambezi basin countries
Zambezi River Basin countries have been losing forests over the decades, and this loss continues unabated. Rates of forest loss per year in the last 20 years have been significant with Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Mozambique recording the highest losses of 403 350 hectares, 327 000 hectares and 217 800 hectares, respectively, while Malawi and Namibia recorded the smallest losses at 32 950 hectares and 73 600 hectares, respectively (FAO 2011). The main ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin flood areas Zambezi River Basin flood areas
Over the last two decades, the Zambezi River Basin has experienced extreme floods and droughts (SARDC and HBS 2010). Most of the flooding in the basin is associated with active cyclones that develop in the Indian Ocean. The IPCC predicted that tropical cyclones will become more intense, with higher peak wind speeds and heavier precipitation associated with increases in tropical sea surface temperature (IPCC 2009). Major floods were recorded in p...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Threatened Species in the Zambezi River Basin countries Threatened Species in the Zambezi River Basin countries
Despite the abundance of wildlife resources in the basin, there are pressures that threaten the existence of this resource. Species that have become extinct in the basin in recent times include the blue wildebeest in Malawi, the Tsetsebe in Mozambique, and the Kob in Tanzania (SADC and SARDC 2008). Others face a high risk of extinction, and the number of threatened species across the basin continues to rise. The White (Grass) rhinocerous, Black (...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin wetlands Zambezi River Basin wetlands
Wetlands cover a large area of the Zambezi River Basin. For example, in Zambia the Kafue Flats, Lukanga swamps, Barotse flood plains, Nyambomba swamps, Cuando, Busanga,Luangwa and Luena flats cover an area greater than 2.6 million hectares (SADC and ZRA 2007). These wetlands are used for fisheries, agriculture, wildlife management, and transportation services.  The variations in flooding in areas such as the Zambezi floodplains, East Caprivi ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin vegetation Zambezi River Basin vegetation
Land cover and land use have great impacts on water resources, as they affect how precipitation translates into runoff, infiltration, evaporation, and the quality of the water (Hirji et al. 2002). Almost 75 per cent of the land area in the basin is forest and bush. Cropped land with mostly rain-fed agriculture covers 13 per cent of the land area, and grassland covers about 8 per cent of the land area.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin average temperature Zambezi River Basin average temperature
The temperature across the river basin varies according to elevation and, to a much lesser extent, latitude. Mean monthly temperatures for the coldest month, July, vary from below 13°C for higher elevation areas in the south of the basin to 23°C for low elevation areas in the delta in Mozambique. The coolest area is the south-eastern part of the basin, part of which is in Zambia and the other part is in Zimbabwe. Ground frost occurs locally in s...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin Zambezi River Basin
The Zambezi River Basin is located between 8–20° S latitude and 16.5–36° E longitude in southern Africa (Chenje 2000). It drains an area of almost 1.4 million square kilometres, stretching across 8 of the 15 member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin average rainfall Zambezi River Basin average rainfall
Average annual rainfall across the river basin varies from 500mm in the extreme south and southwest part of the basin to more than 1 400 mm in the Upper Zambezi and Kabompo sub-basins, in the north-eastern shores of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa in Tanzania, and in the southern border area between Malawi and Mozambique (Chenje 2000). Rainfall is greatest in the north, with an extensive area receiving over 1 000 mm, and declines towards the south, ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin hydropower facilities Zambezi River Basin hydropower facilities
The hydropower potential of the Zambezi River Basin is estimated at 20 000 megawatts (MW)of which about 5 000 MW has been developed (Tumbare 2004). More than half of this potential is in Mozambique, about one-quarter in Zambia and one-sixth in Zimbabwe (SADC and ZRA 2007). The Cahora Bassa, Kariba and Kafue Gorge dams provide the bulk of the basin’s hydropower, generating 2 075 MW, 1 470 MW and 990 MW of electricity, respectively (World Bank ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin share by country Zambezi River Basin share by country
The Zambezi River Basin has 13 sub-basins, most of which are transboundary. The largest portion of the basin lies in Zambia, with smaller segments in Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi in that order. Tanzania, Botswana and Namibia have less than three per cent of the basin each.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Africa major river basins Africa major river basins
There are 63 transboundary river basins in Africa, covering 64 per cent of the continent’s land area (UNEP 2010). The Zambezi basin is the fourth largest in Africa after the Congo, Nile and Niger River Basins (Mukosa and Mwiinga 2008).
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tanzania, a hotspot for agrofuel investments Tanzania, a hotspot for agrofuel investments
12 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Africa, a global market for large-scale land acquisitions Africa, a global market for large-scale land acquisitions
By 2013, international large-scale land transactions amounting to 46 million hectares had been successfully transacted worldwide. Africa is the main target of these transactions: transactions accounting for 50 percent of the verified land deals have been reported in Africa. Ethiopia, Sudan, Madagascar, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Cameroon in particular, have been the primary focus of land acquisition.
20 Jun 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Land acquisition by agricultural use Land acquisition by agricultural use
12 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Merury management options Merury management options
Several stabilization technologies exist: chemical transformation into a more stable, less mobile chemical compound; micro-encapsulation, the embedding of particles in an impermeable matrix such as cement; and macro-encapsulation, the covering of waste material with an impermeable material, for example polyethylene. The fact that stabilized mercury is non-toxic significantly helps the search for suitable storage sites. Unlike liquid mercury, the ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Compact fluorescent lamps (CLFs) Compact fluorescent lamps (CLFs)
Mercury is widely used in compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and the demand for them is increasing in the quest for energy efficiency. According to the EU Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS Directive), mercury content in CFLs not exceeding 5 mg per lamp is allowed. These lamps reduce electricity consumption so that in countries that generate electricity largely from coal, the...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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The industry's self-commitment to phase out mercury use in the chlor-alkali industry The industry's self-commitment to phase out mercury use in the chlor-alkali industry
Efforts to confront the threat posed by mercury to human health and the environment have grown over the last decades. There are a number of initiatives aiming, for example, to reduce the use of mercury in products, to remediate sites and to clean up historic pollution. Some countries have introduced far-reaching regulations. Global action, however, has been rather limited. In 2008, United States of America (USA) introduced its Mercury Export B...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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