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Land cover - Baltic Sea region
The Baltic Sea region is covered in primarily forested land and crop land, in the taiga and temperate forest regions. Agricultural land is a main driver for nutrient inputs to the Baltic Sea, and thus eutorphication, and...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Baltic Sea drainage basin
This 'basemap' displays the extent of the drainage basin (the boundary for the water that ends up in the Baltic Sea), and the countries in the region. The drainage basin represents all water that drains into the sea, thr...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Malaria risk and climate change
Plasmodium vivax, with the Anopheles mosquito as a vector, is an organism causing malaria. The main climate factors that have bearing on the malarial transmission potential of the mosquito population are temperature and ...
17 May 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Radiative forcing - energy balances and the greenhouse effect
Radiative forcing is the change in the balance between radiation coming into the atmosphere and radiation going out. A positive radiative forcing tends on average to warm the surface of the Earth, and negative forcing te...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change and vector-borne diseases
Climate change and altered weather patters would affect the range (both altitude and latitude), intensity, and seasonality of many major tropical vector-borne and other infectious diseases - such as malaria and dengue fe...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in permafrost temperature in Fairbanks (Alaska)
With a doubling of atmospheric CO2, it is likely that there will be increases in the thickness of the active layer permafrost and the disappearance of most of the ice-rich discontinous permafrost over a century-long time...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in global temperatures
The figure shows the combined land-surface air and sea surface temperatures (degrees Centigrade) 1861 to 1998, relative to the average temperature between 1961 and 1990. The mean global surface temperature has increased...
06 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature trends and projections
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean temperature changes relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Climate models calculate that the global mean surface temperature could rise by about 1 to 4.5 cen...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Scenarios of sea level rise, now - 2100
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean sea level increases relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Taking into account the ranges in the estimate of climate sensitivity and ice melt parameters, and...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise due, past and scenarios due to global warming
Over the last 100 years, the global sea level has risen by about 10 to 25 cm. Sea level change is difficult to measure. Relative sea level changes have been derived mainly from tide-gauge data. In the conventional tide-g...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change impact on mountain vegetation zones
The figure shows a comparison of current vegetation zones at a hypothetical dry temperate mountain site with simulated vegetation zones under a climate-warming scenario. Mountains cover about 20% of the Earth's continent...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from industry
This map depicts the unequal distribution of industry in the world. The significant part of carbon dioxide emissions comes from energy production, industrial processes and transport. The industrialised countries conseque...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Main greenhouse gases
The table lists some of the main greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane, and freons) and their concentrations in pre-industrial times and in 1994; atmospheric lifetimes; anthropogenic sources; and Global Warmi...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (1959-1998)
CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have been measured at an altitude of about 4,000 meters on the peak of Mauna Loa mountain in Hawaii since 1958. The measurements at this location, remote from local sources of polluti...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The carbon cycle
The global carbon cycle shows the carbon reservoirs in GtC (gigatonne= one thousand million tonnes) and fluxes in GtC/year. The indicated figures are annual averages over the period 1980 to 1989. The component cycles ar...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate scenarios for cereal production
The figure shows change in cereals production under three different GCM equilibrium scenarios (percent from base estimated in 2060). While there are still uncertainties about whether climate change will cause global agri...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in CO2 and climate: assumptions in the IPCC 1992 scenarios
Projected anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use, deforestation and cement production are shown for some of the IPCC emission scenarios. The highest emission scenario - IS92e - assumes moderate population grow...
06 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential climate change impacts
If greenhouse gas concentrations keep rising, climatic changes are likely to result. Those changes will potentially have wide-ranging effects on the environment and socio-economic and related sectors, such as health, agr...
23 Feb 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential impact of sea level rise: Nile Delta
Rising sea level would destroy weak parts of the sand belt, which is essential for the protection of lagoons and the low-lying reclaimed lands in the Nile delta of Egypt (Mediterranean Sea). The impacts would be very ser...
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse effect
Human activities are causing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere to increase. This graphic explains how solar energy is absorbed by the earth's surface, causing the earth to warm and to emit infrared radiation. The g...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater stress and risk
One study suggests that although global water conditions may worsen by 2025 due to population pressure, climate change could have a net positive impact on global water resources. NB! Note that other studies indicate tha...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that clima...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda
Developing countries, whose economies often rely heavily on one or two agricultural products, are especially vulnerable to climate change. This graphic shows that with an increase of only 2 degrees Celsius, there would b...
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in the ice-breaking date in the Tornio river, Finland
The icebreaking date for the Tornio River in Finland has been recorded since 1693. With the increased greenhouse effect, impacts on the cryosphere are likely. One impact will be less ice on rivers and lakes. Freeze-up da...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice
Sea-ice draft is the thickness of the part of the ice that is submerged under the sea. Comparison of sea-ice draft data acquired on submarine cruises between 1993 and 1997 with similar data acquired between 1958 and 1976...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
IPCC structure
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability
The potential impacts of climate change on the environment and socio-economic systems can be understood in terms of sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability of the system, and this figure defines these terms.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nigeria and the freshwater challenge
Out of the total precipitation reaching Nigeria, it can be separated into green and blue water. Green water (79% of the precipitation) represents the fraction of rainfall that generates soil moisture and which supports t...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal issues in the islands of Comoros and Mayotte
With poverty and high population density this group of volcanic islands between Eastern Africa and Madagascar faces challenges in the management of the coastal environment. The islands are fringed by magnificent coral re...
23 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Woodfuel and energy consumption
Biomass, primarily woodfuel, is the major source of energy in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of South Africa. Over 90% of the total energy consumption is biomass in Ethiopia, DPR Congo and Tanzania. Projections e...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Current and potential arable land use in Africa
Out of the total land area in Africa, only a fraction is used for arable land. Using soil, land cover and climatic characteristics a FAO study has estimated the potential land area for rainfed crops, excluding built up a...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. The majority of the catches in some of the areas of the coast are not primarily by the coastal countries, but rather as in thi...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agriculture in Africa, value added out of GDP
For the future of Africa, agriculture remains one of the most important issues. A majority of the population, especially outside urban areas, are involved in agriculture, and food security is one of the most important is...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender equality and empowerment of women: eliminate differences in education
In increasing living standards, sustainability and livelihoods and eliminating poverty, gender equality and education are seen as some of the main means. This is further recognized in the Millennium Development Goals, as...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Africa: Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
The process initiated by UNEP in 1995, materialised as the Stockholm convention in May 2001. The convention bans chemicals such as chlordane, DDT and PCB and other organic pesticides and industrial chemicals, as well as ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Loss of Great Ape habitat 2002-2032 (Africa)
Based on population pressures the GLOBIO2 model has assessed the current and future human impacts on Great Ape habitat in Africa (Chimpanzee, Bonobo and Gorilla). The analysis shows a vast reduction of some of the world'...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sub-Saharan Africa: Mineral resources and political instability
Africa, south of Sahara, is a region with plenty of valuable mineral resources - metals, oil and diamonds. Foreign investments lead the extraction and exploration in many of these places to supply the world markets. This...
02 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Le Monde Diplomatique
Population and growth, projections and historic data
The population has rapidly increased in Africa, to reach approximately 905 million inhabitants by 2005. The rate of the annual growth is levelling out after seeing a peak around 1990. Out of the sub-regions, the populati...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive alien plants in South Africa
Species that has been introduced on purpose or spread in the wild threaten livelihoods in agriculture or water resources. As illustrated in this map, some regions of South Africa have very high ratios of invasive alien p...
23 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, a supplement to the convention on biological diversity, has strong support in Africa, with a majority of the countries as signatories. In addition, several countries have, in the past...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions of carbon dioxide, in Africa and selected OECD countries
Africa represents only a small fraction, 3.6%, out of the total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year, yet 14% of the population of the world lives here. The emissions per inhabitant in Libya, the Seychelles and South ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pesticides stockpiles in Africa
Mountains of obsolete pesticides are stockpiled in Africa. Problems with labelling, storage, and the supply of unsuitable products, means that they sit around unused, some for as long as 40 years. They include poisons lo...
02 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major bottled water exporters and importers
The maps illustrate the crazy logic of today’s global trade. Exchange is no longer based on local needs or resource availability (in most countries where large amounts of bottled water are consumed, the tap water is perf...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Heftingsdalen shipping area
At the entrance to the plant, which covers more than 15 hectares, a sign announces:“Compost, bark and wood shavings for sale”. Other waste is separated, packed and redirected to logistics centres elsewhere in Norway and...
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Waste collection in Curitiba
In the 1980s severe hygienic problems plagued parts of Curitiba where housing development was uncontrolled. The winding streets were too narrow for council trucks and waste rotting in the open caused disease. In 1989 ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Packaging waste production per capita in Europe
The manufacture of packaging itself generates waste and by defi nition it has a particularly short lifespan. It turns into waste as soon as its contents reaches its destination. This is certainly a blessing for the packa...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
World Population
The goods we accumulate today will pile up as waste tomorrow, and more yet in view of the global trends. Projections tell us that there will be 9 000 million people on Earth by 2050. According to the Global Footprint Net...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Radioactive waste hotspots and transboundary pollution in Central Asia’s Ferghana Valley
The Soviet Union used the Ferghana Valley as one of its main sources of metal and uranium ore. The area has many nuclear waste storage sites, abandoned uranium mines with poorly secured tailing dams and nuclear reacto...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Typical hazardous wastes generated by selected manufacturing industries
Industry is the top producer of waste in developed countries. A large proportion of industrial waste is hazardous, because industrial processes often involve chemicals. Cleaner production – reducing the amount of problem...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
What is e-waste?
A growing share of municipal waste contains electronic or electric products. E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams and makes up approximately 4 per cent of municipal waste in the European Union. In the US,...
15 Dec 2006 - by Claudia Heberlein
Energy consumption per capita (2004)
According to current forecasts the world’s energy requirements will have risen by more than 50 per cent by 2030. Oil and natural gas will account for more than 60 per cent of the increase. During the same time period ren...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Waste at every stage
The squares are proportionnal to the estimated amounts of waste generated by sector in 2002, in the OECD countries (in million tonnes). Waste is produced from the very beginning of the life cycle of a product, long befor...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Everyday alternatives: biodegradable, disposable or conventional tableware?
The priority is to decrease the amount of waste we generate. Only then should we will be proud of the high rates for recycling some countries report (see examples for glass and paper). Glass recycling scores best, per...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Population by income level
The rich world consumes more and thus produces more waste. The World Bank classification based on gross national income per capita is an indication of the global consumption level. Over the last two decades the world as ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Number of planes to be dismantled worldwide
At the end of their service life airliners may prove useful in many ways. They often fly as freighters for several years. When finally grounded they are scavenged for spare parts for other aircrafts, or used for training...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Recycling Rates for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries
Reusing and recycling are natural survival strategies for many people in the developing world. In rich countries we abandoned the habit and are now relearning how to reuse and recycle. Public rubbish collection and a wel...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Hazardous waste generation
In Europe the manufacturing sector produces large amounts of hazardous waste. This graphic shows the ratio between the manufacturing sector and all other sectors in selected European countries from 2002 figures.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Nuclear waste generation
More than three-quarters of nuclear reactors currently in service are more than 20 years old. After an average service life of 30 years it takes 20 more years to dismantle them. The spent fuel figures for 2002 are nat...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Consumption appeal
The marketing and advertising industry is constantly teasing us with trendy, cool and largely superfluous products. To judge by investment in advertising, it takes more and more to achieve the same effect. With all th...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Household waste and recycling in England
In 1999, the British consultant BioRegional thought up an innovative way of dealing with waste paper. Surely offices could sort their own paper and, after local reprocessing, reuse it? Local Paper for London now recycles...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Mining waste emissions to land and water in Australia
PRTRs (Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers) are databases of chemical releases to air, land and water from factories or other sources. Targeting a broad public audience, they support our right to information on toxi...
01 Oct 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
168 Parties to the Basel Convention in 2006
By the 1980s, the international community launched treaty negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme. In March 1989, they adopted the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Move...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin, Emmanuelle Bournay
Household expenditure per capita, selected countries
The list of products we used to keep for years and now dispose of instantly is almost endless: tissues, face wipes, razors, kitchen wipes, serviettes, nappies, plastic bags, toner cartridges, cameras and barbecues, to...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Mining and ore waste
Mining waste takes up a great deal of space, blights the landscape and often affects local habitats. By its very nature it can constitute a serious safety hazard. Poor management may allow acidic and metals containing d...
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
Major merchandise ports [and likely waste transit points]
Unscrupulous waste trade became a serious concern in the 1980s due to three converging factors: increasing amounts of hazardous waste; inadequate processing plants; and stricter regulations in the developed world with gr...
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay
Cell phone composition
It is impossible to detail all the types of waste directly or indirectly involved in manufacturing mobile phones. In developed countries production processes manage to keep sensitive materials in a closed circuit, witho...
01 Oct 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Consumer items in China
The impact of income on lifestyle is apparent in China like elsewhere. There has been a massive surge in all consumer goods with rising income in towns. The same trend can be observed to a much lesser extent in the coun...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Transboundary movements of waste among Parties to the Convention
Describing and quantifying global trade in waste is difficult. The official figures compiled by the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal are a good start, but...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Mining and quarrying waste quantities in Europe
At 29 per cent of total wastes generated and with over 400 million tonnes of materials, mining and quarrying account for the largest stream of waste generated by countries that are members of the Euro pean Environment...
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
Paper lifecycle comparison
Statistics from the Paper Task Force show virgin paper (from tree harvesting to the landfill) versus and recycled paper (from collection to recycling again) and their respective environmental impacts by various by-produc...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Packaging waste composition in the UK
According to Residua, a UK company working on solid waste issues, about 50 per cent of European goods are wrapped in plastic (17 per cent by weight). There are many types of plastic packaging: plastic bottles are often m...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Waste scavengers of Buenos Aires
In Buenos Aires informal waste collectors recover 9 to 17 per cent of municipal waste, representing an estimated saving for the municipality of US$30 000 to US$70 000 a day or US$3.5 to US$7 per collector. Scavenger ho...
15 Dec 2006 - by Stéphane Kluser
Number of cars to be scrapped in Europe
Scrapped cars or “end-of life vehicles” are not collected as bulky waste, but they too pose problems because of their size and disparate components. Given car production trends this is an issue that demands serious cons...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Waste management choices in Europe
Not long ago the amount and composition of waste was such that it could be simply diluted and dispersed into the environment. Most items were reused and only a few remained, that would not decompose naturally. With indus...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Who is involved? (The making of international legislation)
Recognizing that industrial society must fix this major flaw in the system, governments and many forward-looking companies started exploring solutions as early as the 1970s. The strong activism of civil society organizat...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin, Emmanuelle Bournay
A history of waste management
A visual timeline of historical waste manaement. From the first recorded landfill created in Knossos in 3000 B.C. to the English parliament banning waste disposal in public waterways and ditches in 1388 to the establishm...
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio, Emmanuelle Bournay
Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) Seaport project: a European initiative to control international waste shipments
Combating waste trafficking demands international cooperation and a high-level of scientific expertise (to analyse the composition of waste, for instance). This is primarily the task of customs and port authorities, but ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Paper and paperboard production
Though it is based on wood, a natural renewable resource, the pulp and paper industry is one of the worst sources of pollution. It absorbs more than 40 per cent of all timber felled worldwide. Despite the development of ...
07 Nov 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Heftingsdalen, Norway
The plant is designed to restrict waste movement and environmental damage. Strict safety regulations govern storage of hazardous waste (chemicals, asbestos, varnish, oil, etc.). Such waste is not moved until it is destro...
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Household Waste, Heftingsdalen
In 2005 household waste output was up by 10 000 tonnes on 2000, rising from 15 000 to 25 000 tonnes for almost the same population. Nor does this include 20 000 tonnes of business waste (construction, light industry and...
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Trafficking waste stories
Despite international efforts to halt dumping of illegal waste outrageous incidents occur. Collating relevant data is difficult but there is no doubt about the damage. Toxic waste causes long-term poisoning of soil and w...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Japanese household waste composition
One person’s dustbin is not the same as another’s. Depending on which continent you live on, on your life style, financial resources, and so on, your trash will be different. This shows two cases from Japan.
15 Dec 2006 - by Claudia Heberlein, Emmanuelle Bournay
Total bottled water consumption
Why would any country import goods already produced at home or nearby? One explanation is straight forward: It may be cheaper to buy abroad than produce locally or the necessary know-how is not available locally. In some...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Major waste exporters, Major waste receivers
Some countries, for example the Netherlands and Belgium, seem to act as “waste dispatchers”. Their figures suggest that they are the top waste exporters, a fact that reflects neither the waste they produce (given their p...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Global household expenditure
Several trends characterise modern consumer goods. Our appetite for them continues to grow, with product ranges growing too. Meanwhile the average lifespan of many products is shortening. 80% of what we make is thrown aw...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
About the difficulties of classifying waste (and counting it)
A multitude of approaches exists to classify the various categories of waste. Waste can be sorted either by its origin (what activity has created it?), by its composition (what is it made of?), by the level of danger it...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Curitiba, location
Curitiba has become world-famous for its original approach to basic municipal problems thanks to a unique mixture of innovative town planning, determined political leadership and good public relations.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Mining waste generated from aluminium production
The production of aluminium involves three main stages: mining bauxite ore, refining bauxite to alumina (Al2O3), and then smelting alumina to produce aluminium. Bauxite comes from open mines mainly located in tropical an...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin, Emmanuelle Bournay
Curitiba city map
Curitiba has become world-famous for its original approach to basic municipal problems thanks to a unique mixture of innovative town planning, determined political leadership and good public relations.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Share of packaging waste in total household waste (OECD)
Once a product is manufactured and ready to be sold, it must be distributed. To protect it from dirt and shocks, to make it easier to store, but also to make it look appealing, a whole science has developed to design ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Shipbreakers of Asia
A few recent changes in national and international regulations provoked a massive drop in the tonnage of ships being broken up and major shifts in the shipbreaking market. Bangladeshi shipbreaking yards are, for example,...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
BedZED (Beddington Zero energy development), location
At Beddington, south of London, a housing development known as BedZED (Beddington Zero energy development) was designed from the start to produce little waste of any sort. It was built on a depolluted plot of land, previ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Mobile phone subscribers
Mobile phones were launched in 1984 and the market has been booming ever since. In 20 years they have spread like wildfire. By September 2004 there were 344 million subscribers (out of a population of 380 million) in t...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Energy production waste in selected European countries
Waste is a major environmental concern for the energy sector. Depending on the type of energy, the production process itself will generate substantial quantities of waste. The energy sector generates specific types of wa...
01 Oct 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
Caspian Sea and the world: the stage and the actors
The Caspian Sea region presents a wealth of opportunities in various aspect, including bioresources, transport corridors, and not ecotourism. These new ventures may bring increased prosperity, but they also put pressure...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human Development Index (HDI) for the Caspian Sea countries
The characteristic feature in all four post-Soviet countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan) is a relatively high level of education in relation to national income and rather low life expectancy, indicatin...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal