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Consumer items in China
The impact of income on lifestyle is apparent in China like elsewhere. There has been a massive surge in all consumer goods with rising income in towns. The same trend can be observed to a much lesser extent in the coun...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Transboundary movements of waste among Parties to the Convention
Describing and quantifying global trade in waste is difficult. The official figures compiled by the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal are a good start, but...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Mining and quarrying waste quantities in Europe
At 29 per cent of total wastes generated and with over 400 million tonnes of materials, mining and quarrying account for the largest stream of waste generated by countries that are members of the Euro pean Environment...
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
Paper lifecycle comparison
Statistics from the Paper Task Force show virgin paper (from tree harvesting to the landfill) versus and recycled paper (from collection to recycling again) and their respective environmental impacts by various by-produc...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Packaging waste composition in the UK
According to Residua, a UK company working on solid waste issues, about 50 per cent of European goods are wrapped in plastic (17 per cent by weight). There are many types of plastic packaging: plastic bottles are often m...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Waste scavengers of Buenos Aires
In Buenos Aires informal waste collectors recover 9 to 17 per cent of municipal waste, representing an estimated saving for the municipality of US$30 000 to US$70 000 a day or US$3.5 to US$7 per collector. Scavenger ho...
15 Dec 2006 - by Stéphane Kluser
Number of cars to be scrapped in Europe
Scrapped cars or “end-of life vehicles” are not collected as bulky waste, but they too pose problems because of their size and disparate components. Given car production trends this is an issue that demands serious cons...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Waste management choices in Europe
Not long ago the amount and composition of waste was such that it could be simply diluted and dispersed into the environment. Most items were reused and only a few remained, that would not decompose naturally. With indus...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Who is involved? (The making of international legislation)
Recognizing that industrial society must fix this major flaw in the system, governments and many forward-looking companies started exploring solutions as early as the 1970s. The strong activism of civil society organizat...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin, Emmanuelle Bournay
A history of waste management
A visual timeline of historical waste manaement. From the first recorded landfill created in Knossos in 3000 B.C. to the English parliament banning waste disposal in public waterways and ditches in 1388 to the establishm...
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio, Emmanuelle Bournay
Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) Seaport project: a European initiative to control international waste shipments
Combating waste trafficking demands international cooperation and a high-level of scientific expertise (to analyse the composition of waste, for instance). This is primarily the task of customs and port authorities, but ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Paper and paperboard production
Though it is based on wood, a natural renewable resource, the pulp and paper industry is one of the worst sources of pollution. It absorbs more than 40 per cent of all timber felled worldwide. Despite the development of ...
07 Nov 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Heftingsdalen, Norway
The plant is designed to restrict waste movement and environmental damage. Strict safety regulations govern storage of hazardous waste (chemicals, asbestos, varnish, oil, etc.). Such waste is not moved until it is destro...
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Household Waste, Heftingsdalen
In 2005 household waste output was up by 10 000 tonnes on 2000, rising from 15 000 to 25 000 tonnes for almost the same population. Nor does this include 20 000 tonnes of business waste (construction, light industry and...
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Trafficking waste stories
Despite international efforts to halt dumping of illegal waste outrageous incidents occur. Collating relevant data is difficult but there is no doubt about the damage. Toxic waste causes long-term poisoning of soil and w...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Japanese household waste composition
One person’s dustbin is not the same as another’s. Depending on which continent you live on, on your life style, financial resources, and so on, your trash will be different. This shows two cases from Japan.
15 Dec 2006 - by Claudia Heberlein, Emmanuelle Bournay
Total bottled water consumption
Why would any country import goods already produced at home or nearby? One explanation is straight forward: It may be cheaper to buy abroad than produce locally or the necessary know-how is not available locally. In some...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Major waste exporters, Major waste receivers
Some countries, for example the Netherlands and Belgium, seem to act as “waste dispatchers”. Their figures suggest that they are the top waste exporters, a fact that reflects neither the waste they produce (given their p...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Global household expenditure
Several trends characterise modern consumer goods. Our appetite for them continues to grow, with product ranges growing too. Meanwhile the average lifespan of many products is shortening. 80% of what we make is thrown aw...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
About the difficulties of classifying waste (and counting it)
A multitude of approaches exists to classify the various categories of waste. Waste can be sorted either by its origin (what activity has created it?), by its composition (what is it made of?), by the level of danger it...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Curitiba, location
Curitiba has become world-famous for its original approach to basic municipal problems thanks to a unique mixture of innovative town planning, determined political leadership and good public relations.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Mining waste generated from aluminium production
The production of aluminium involves three main stages: mining bauxite ore, refining bauxite to alumina (Al2O3), and then smelting alumina to produce aluminium. Bauxite comes from open mines mainly located in tropical an...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin, Emmanuelle Bournay
Curitiba city map
Curitiba has become world-famous for its original approach to basic municipal problems thanks to a unique mixture of innovative town planning, determined political leadership and good public relations.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Share of packaging waste in total household waste (OECD)
Once a product is manufactured and ready to be sold, it must be distributed. To protect it from dirt and shocks, to make it easier to store, but also to make it look appealing, a whole science has developed to design ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Shipbreakers of Asia
A few recent changes in national and international regulations provoked a massive drop in the tonnage of ships being broken up and major shifts in the shipbreaking market. Bangladeshi shipbreaking yards are, for example,...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
BedZED (Beddington Zero energy development), location
At Beddington, south of London, a housing development known as BedZED (Beddington Zero energy development) was designed from the start to produce little waste of any sort. It was built on a depolluted plot of land, previ...
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
Mobile phone subscribers
Mobile phones were launched in 1984 and the market has been booming ever since. In 20 years they have spread like wildfire. By September 2004 there were 344 million subscribers (out of a population of 380 million) in t...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Energy production waste in selected European countries
Waste is a major environmental concern for the energy sector. Depending on the type of energy, the production process itself will generate substantial quantities of waste. The energy sector generates specific types of wa...
01 Oct 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
Caspian Sea and the world: the stage and the actors
The Caspian Sea region presents a wealth of opportunities in various aspect, including bioresources, transport corridors, and not ecotourism. These new ventures may bring increased prosperity, but they also put pressure...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human Development Index (HDI) for the Caspian Sea countries
The characteristic feature in all four post-Soviet countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan) is a relatively high level of education in relation to national income and rather low life expectancy, indicatin...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Markets for Caspian oil and gas
The prospects for rapid oil wealth contrast with fast spreading poverty following the collapse of the Soviet economy. Although massive investment has suddenly been channelled into the area, its effect is still both geogr...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity in the Caspian Sea (Approximate numbers)
The region presents a wealth of opportunities in other areas, including bioresources, transport corridors, and not least ecotourism. These new ventures may bring increased prosperity, but they also put pressure on tradit...
22 Feb 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regulation in the Volga river, 1934 compared to 1999
The construction of a large number of dams and industrial facilities on the rivers feeding the Caspian has caused a significant change in the quantity of water inflow. The creation of a succession of large reservoirs, es...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010)
The Black and Mediterranean Seas are one of the main outlets for transporting fuel resources that have been extracted around the Caspian Sea region and from further inland. Oil is transported in pipelines to the ports on...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mine and industrial site in Koshkar-Ata, Kazakhstan
Much of the area near Koshkar-Ata Lake in Kazakhstan, just off the shore of the Caspian Sea, has been severely polluted due to mining activities of uranium phosphate. The area is also affected from chemical plants and m...
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Share of food in total household expenses (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan)
In all the areas bordering on the Caspian, priority must be given to diversifying activities and investment. Particular attention should be given to sectors such as tourism, agriculture and food production as well as ser...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The inlet of the bay of Kara-Bogaz-Gol before and after the construction of the dam (Turkmenistan, Caspian Sea)
Kara-Bogaz-Gol is a lowland area that forms a highly saline bay on the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkmenistan. In Soviet times it was decided to set up a dam to block the flow of saline water from the bay to the C...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual flow of water to the Caspian Sea
Most of the water flowing into the sea comes from coastal rivers – currently supplying 300 to 310 cubic km a year. The Volga alone accounts for 80% of inflow. But it has dropped substantially during the 20th century, dec...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, for the Caspian Sea region countries
Purchasing power parity (PPP) measures how much a currency can buy in terms of an international benchmark (usually dollars), since the cost of goods and services differs between countries. PPP is below the value of a US ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Caspian Sea drainage basin
The Caspian Sea runs north and south, extending over 1,200 km, with an average width of 320 km. It covers approximately 400,000 sq km (an area slightly larger than Germany). The population of the region is about 14 milli...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total sturgeon catch in the Caspian Sea, 1932-2000
Pressure from the international community having raised awareness of its value as a bio-resource, the region is now struggling to save the sturgeon. To protect the vulnerable fish species more then 100 million sturgeon a...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mean sea surface temperature on the Caspian Sea
Recent research by the Caspian Environment Programme estimates the number of living seals to be as low as 150,000. A further reduction in ice cover due to a warming climate could well be one of the major threats facing t...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Desertification in the Caspian Sea region
Contrasting rainfall trends have been observed in the north and south. Whereas rainfall over Russia has increased over the last century, already dry areas such as the coasts of Turkmenistan and Iran have become even drie...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Caspian Sea coastlines vulnerable to flooding
Most of the water flowing into the sea comes from coastal rivers. The quantity and quality of this water, particularly that of the Volga, are key variables in the balance of the Caspian Sea. To this must be added rainfal...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Discharge of pollutants in the Caspian Sea - mercury and cadmium
Mercury and Cadmium are classified as toxic metals, and are persistant pollutants in the environment, that stays in the system and is accumulated through the food chains. The main release of these pollutants are on the w...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Toxic metals in sediments of the Caspian Sea (Arsenic, Mercury and Copper)
Sampled sediments in the Caspian Sea show that arsenic is spread out at multiple locations, but primarily on the southern and southwest shores of the Sea, on the shores of Iran and Azerbaijan - where also Copper is accum...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Origin and destination of selected invasive/alien species
Invasive and alien species that are brought into a new environment, either on purpose or by accident, can quickly exploit ecological niches that are not fully covered by indigenous (local) species. They will then quickly...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Drought in Central and Southwest Asia
Turkmenistan and Iran have become drier. Dust storms pick up large amounts of salt and dust as they pass over the Kara-Kum desert and the Caspian Seashore, depositing it in the Volga River valley where it impairs the fer...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species)
The comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their...
04 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kara-Bogaz-Gol - restoration of previous water levels after 1992 (Turkmenistan, Caspian Sea)
Kara-Bogaz-Gol is a lowland area that forms a highly saline bay on the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkmenistan. In Soviet times it was decided to set up a dam to block the flow of saline water from the bay to the C...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kara-Bogaz-Gol - water level variation over time
Comparing a series of satellite images from different periods a Californian hydrologist discovered in 1983 that a huge white spot had taken the place of the vast Kara-Bogaz- Gol (literally “dark gullet” in Turkmen) in th...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oil production and forecasts - Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan
For the Caspian Sea countries of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, the extraction of oil represents a significant resource, and the production has been increasing since independence. Numbers should however be trea...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice cover on the North Caspian Sea
Higher winter temperatures, possibly related to changes in global climate observed in recent years, have caused thinner ice coverage and restricted the traditional reproduction grounds of the Caspian seal in the shallow ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy production, consumption and export - Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan
The land-based activities of the oil and gas industry in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan have had a much more severe impact on the environment than marine activity. In particular the growth in hydrocarbon-related activity has ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Caviar imports to Japan, European Union and United States
The Caspian area is the world’s main producer of wild caviar (83% in 2003) and supplies the three largest markets, the European Union, Japan and the USA. The construction of several hydroelectric power plants and dams al...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Caspian sea climate, mean annual temperature and precipitation
With the Caspian Sea's north-south alignment, stretching over a distance of approximately 10 degrees, the water body crosses several different climatic regions. The northernmost regions, with Russia and Kazakhstan are ch...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pollutants in sediments of the Caspian Sea (pesticides, nickel and chromium)
Sampled sediments in the Caspian Sea show that the accumulation is at its worst in the south and southwestern shores of this inland sea, off the shores of Iran and Azerbaijan. Sampled pollutants presented in this map are...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Transportation projects converging on the Caspian Sea
For many years, coastal navigation has connected republics in the former Soviet Union. It used the only outlet from the Caspian, the Volga-Don canal, which connects the Black Sea and the Russian canal system to the Balti...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population density and urban centers in the Caspian Sea region
Apart from two large urban areas – Baku-Sumgait and Makhachkala-Kaspiisk – and the Iranian coast on the southern shore, a very densely populated coastal strip where one agglomeration leads into the next, most of the popu...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Variations in sea level for the Caspian Sea (1840-2004)
The Caspian Sea has been endoreic – inwardly draining, without any outlet – since the Pliocene epoch (about 5 million years ago), prompting some specialists to treat it as the world’s largest lake. Studies of its geomorp...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Discharge of selected pollutants
Nitrogen and phosphorous represents nutrients that can be seen as pollutants, as large concentations of those increase eutrophication. Nutrients are present in primarily commercial fertilisers and in sewage. A measure of...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian Sea region
As the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases, the temperature in the European part of the Caspian Sea region will continue to rise, at least at first. Some researchers have recently expressed fear...
01 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water flow from the Caspian Sea to the bay of Kara-Bogaz-Gol, 1930-2000
Kara-Bogaz-Gol is a lowland area that forms a highly saline bay on the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkmenistan. Soviet leaders maintained that this was “a useless caldron for evaporation, an insatiable mouth swallo...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oil pollution in Azerbaijan
There are hundreds of abandoned oil wells in Azerbaijan, and thousands in Kazakhstan, many of which have been submerged by the rising sea. There are reports of big leaks into the water, killing waterfowl and fish. Thousa...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
How the comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading through European seas (invasive species)
The most threatening event for the Caspian ecosystem was the arrival of the North American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi). It was brought accidentally to the Caspian in the ballast water of oil tankers. Invasive and alie...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Illegal trade of caviar, 2000-2005
It is not clear to what extent the temporary ban on caviar exports has boosted well established illegal domestic and international trafficking, obviously not accounted for in the official figures. The illegal trade in ca...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Caspian Sea - salinity
The Caspian Sea has internal drainage, which means that it does not have an outlet to the World Ocean. All water entering the sea accumulates or evaporates. The sea surface salinity in the sea exhibits a gradient, with t...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population by administrative region, Caspian Sea region
Several countries and provinces – Iran, Daghestan, Turkmenistan and parts of Azerbaijan – still enjoy very high population growth rates (in excess of 10 per 1,000). Many of the population tends to gravitate towards the C...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential environmental hazards in the Caspian Sea Region
Oil slicks glittering on the surface of the sea and thousands of hectares of soil penetrated by oil leaking from abandoned wells are just part of the pollution that people living around the Caspian Sea must endure. In ad...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Infant mortality in Eastern Azerbaijan, 2003
Public health policies during the Soviet period eliminated several traditional diseases. But for lack of adequate investment in medical equipment and drugs in the 1970s and 1980s they failed to effectively halt a worryin...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Health expenditures, 1996-2002 - Russia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Iran and Kazakhstan
Decline in public expenditure on health and education, the general level of public health is either steady or actually declining. Inequality is on the rise, with the switch to a two-tier health service under which paymen...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Infant mortality in the Caspian Sea region
Even if over the last two decades, or perhaps longer, the fertility rate has dropped significantly, the authorities nevertheless have to cope with all the health, education and employment problems associated with a rapid...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Overview of legal international caviar trade, 1998-2003
Four years ago Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Russia agreed to restrict further export of commercial fish products. All three countries, as well as Iran, are party to the UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Sp...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oil spill off the coast of Apsheron peninsula
Thousands of hectares of soil on Azerbaijan’s Apsheron peninsula are unsuitable for agricultural use due to oil spills. The largest of these oil spills happened in May 1996. Oil extraction is happening off shore, in the ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kara-Bogaz-Gol, desertification while dammed 1980-1992 (Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan)
Kara-Bogaz-Gol is a lowland area that forms a highly saline bay on the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkmenistan. In Soviet times it was decided to set up a dam to block the flow of saline water from the bay to the C...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total trade in sturgeon caviar, 1999-2003
The caviar trade reportedly fell by about 70% between 1999 and 2003 but there is still every reason to monitor development of the sturgeon population and keep it on the list of endangered species. However it is not clear...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Overview of renewable energy sources
This chart shows eight different sources of renewable energy and explains advantages and drawbacks of each - wind, sun (photovoltaic and thermal), geothermal, wood, ocean, waste, water (hydroelectricity).
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions and energy scenarios by source
Despite the Kyoto protocol and increased concern over the consequences of climate change, world wide emissions of CO2 continues to grow. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) world total CO2 emissions will i...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Precipitation changes: trends over land from 1900 to 2000
Precipitation has very likely increased during the 20th century by 5 to 10% over most mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere continents, but in contrast, rainfall has likely decreased by 3% on average over mu...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, projected 2010 target status
According to the projections each country has sent to the UNFCCC Secretariat, 14 countries will reach their targets in 2010. Some of the countries that had reached their targets in 2002 will increase their emissions betw...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status
Target reached in 2002, but the emissions are increasing again. By the end of 2005, countries that are obliged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions shall report on their progress towards reaching the emission targets...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from consumption and flaring of fossil fuels
A line graph showing the progress of CO2 emissions created from consumption and flaring of fossil fuels from 1980 to 2002. Indicates that Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union is the only region to have a reduction. Em...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Past and future CO2 concentrations
Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has grown significantly. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased by about 31%, methane concentration by about 150%, and nitrous oxide...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Current and past radiative forcing, from human and natural causes
The radiative forcing from the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases since the pre-industrial era is positive (warming) with a small uncertainty range; that from the direct effects of aerosols is negative (cooling) ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global costs of extreme weather events
The loss data on great natural disasters in the last decades show a dramatic increase in catastrophe losses. A decade comparison since 1960 is shown in the table. The reasons for this development are manifold and encompa...
17 May 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level change: estimations and predictions
This resource includes four graphics that explain sea level change, an expected consequence of climate change. The first graphic, 'Relative Sea Level Over the Past 300 Years', shows the changes in sea level rise, in metr...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, b...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential climate change impacts
If greenhouse gas concentrations keep rising, climatic changes are likely to result. Those changes will potentially have wide-ranging effects on the environment and socio-economic and related sectors, such as health, agr...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, timeline and history
The Kyoto Protocol In 1997 world leaders adopted the Kyoto Protocol requiring rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 5.2% below the 1990 level, calculated as an average over the period 2008-2012. Unde...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon cycle
Carbon is the basis of all organic substances, from fossil fuels to human cells. On Earth, carbon is continually on the move – cycling through living things, the land, ocean, atmosphere. What happens when humans start dr...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse effect
Human activities are causing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere to increase. This graphic explains how solar energy is absorbed by the earth's surface, causing the earth to warm and to emit infrared radiation. The g...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature trends (1976 - 2000)
Over the 20th century there has been a consistent, large-scale warming of both the land and ocean surface, with largest increases in temperature over the midand high latitudes of northern continents. This graphic shows t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that clima...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Main greenhouse gases
A table of the main greenhouse gases and their attributes, sources and concentration levels from 1998. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Greenh...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
National carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita
Shows various countries and their levels of CO2 emissions per capita. Also indicates the difference from high income to low income nations on CO2 output. Central to any study of climate change is the development of an e...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status
After more than 10 years of negotiations, the Kyoto Protocol finally becomes legally binding for the countries that have ratified it. The overall goal in the Protocol is a 5,2 % reduction of greenhouse gas emissions belo...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa,...
20 Sep 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal