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The Arctic region - definitions
Several definitions of the Arctic, physical temperature boundaries, political boundaries, such as as the CAFF delineation, and the Arctic Circle. Compiled by GRID-Arendal and presented in the CAFF Habitat Conservation Re...
01 Nov 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Iceland - protected areas
In 1996 there was serious proposals to increase the area of protected land in Iceland. This graphic was part of the Habitat Conservation Report number 2, 'Proposed Protected Areas in the Circumpolar Arctic 1996.
13 Feb 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Arctic, topography and bathymetry
(See http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/arctic-topography-and-bathymetry1 for an updated version of this map) The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat co...
18 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Extraction activities and disputed areas in the Barents Sea
Norway and the Russian federation are currently disagreeing on the exact definition of their respective zones in the Barents Sea. The cause of the dispute is based on the special status that Svalbard has, as an Internati...
01 Oct 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in Arctic pack ice (sea ice minimum extent)
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) for the Arctic sea ice extent (the permanent ice) are presented in this map, with the successive decrease in the ice up to 2090. The projection...
18 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Region, topography and bathymetry
The Barents Region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway. The Barents Sea has anaverage depth 230 m, bordered by the shelf edge towards the Norwegian ...
01 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Larsen ice shelf, Antarctic peninsula
07 Oct 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
South America, southern ice fields
In Southern South America there are primarily three ice fields with major glaciers - the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefield in the Andes, and then Cordillera Darwin in the very south. All of these are very vulnera...
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic, AMAP and CAFF area
Identifying and defining the Arctic is not necessarily obvious, as this map illustrates. The Arctic Council working groups on conservation and pollution operate with slightly different definitions due to both practical a...
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, reference map
This map locates two groups of islands, outside continental Alaska - the Pribiliof and Aleutian Islands. These islands are located in the Pacific Ocean and the south end of the Bering Sea in the Arctic, and are a part of...
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Antarctica, overview
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered in a permanent continental ice. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarct...
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nenets Autonomous Okrug, reference map
Nenets Autonomous Okrug is an administrative region in Arctic Northwest Russia, covering some 176000 sq km of tundra and marshland. The capital city of the region is Narian-Mar. Off the coast are parts of the Arctic ocea...
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Imports of waste to Switzerland in 1997
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous wastes and other wastes, in tonnes, imported to Switzerland from other countries in 1997. The amounts are based on import data, and the graphic shows that Switzerland imported ...
06 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Export of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes from Switzerland in 1997
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous waste exported from Switzerland in 1997 according to export data and according to import data, as reported by parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Mo...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Import of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes to Switzerland from Other Countries in 1997 Based on Export Data
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous wastes and other wastes, in tonnes, imported to Switzerland from other countries in 1997. The amounts are based on export data and the graphic shows that the following countrie...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Generation of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes (Belgium Excluded) by Y Categories in 1997 in Million Metric Tonnes
This graphic shows the generation of hazardous wastes and other wastes by Y categories in 1997, in millions of metric tonnes, by some of the parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Ha...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes from Non-OECD Countries to OECD Countries in 1997
This graphic shows the total transboundary movement in 1997 of hazardous wastes and other wastes from non-OECD to OECD countries that were reporting parties in 1997 to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Import of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes into Switzerland in 1997
This graphic shows the amounts and types of hazardous wastes and other wastes imported into Switzerland in 1997, based on export data and based on import data. It also shows the amount of waste disposed of, and the metho...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes among OECD Countries in 1997
This graphic shows the total transboundary movement in 1997 of hazardous wastes and other wastes among OECD countries that were reporting parties in 1997 to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements ...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes from OECD to Non-OECD Countries in 1997
This graphic shows the total amount of hazardous wastes transferred from OECD to non-OECD countries that were reporting parties, as of 1997, to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous ...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Disposal Operations in 1997 in Million Metric Tonnes
This figure shows the total amounts of hazardous waste disposed of through 16 different methods in 1997 by parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal....
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Export of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes from Switzerland to Other Countries in 1997 Based on Export Data
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous wastes and other wastes, in tonnes, exported from Switzerland to other countries in 1997. The amounts are based on export data, and shows that Switzerland exported wastes to th...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Reporting Parties on Export Data in 1997
This graphic shows, as of 1997, which of the parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal had reported [export] data, which had reported that there was ...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Recycling operations in 1997
This graphic presents the 1997 status of recycling operations, by recycling category, and broken down by imports and exports. R4 has the highest reported data, with more than sixhundred thousand metric tonnes of waste.
06 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes from OECD to Non-OECD Countries in 1997
This graphic shows the total amount of hazardous wastes transferred from OECD to non-OECD countries that were reporting parties, as of 1997, to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous ...
06 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes Among Non-OECD Countries in 1997
This graphic shows the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes in 1997 among non-OECD countries that were reporting parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and The...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Total Amount of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes Generated in 1997 in Million Metric Tonnes
This graphic shows the total amounts of hazardous wastes and other wastes generated in 1997 by 28 parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. The grap...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
133 Parties to the Basel Convention (11 November 1999)
This graphic shows the locations of parties and signatories to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, as of November 11, 1999. Explanatory note from the ful...
07 Nov 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Export of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes from Switzerland to Other Countries in 1997 Based on Import Data
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous wastes and other wastes, in tonnes, exported from Switzerland to other countries in 1997. The amounts are based on import data, and the graphic shows that Switzerland exported ...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes Generated in 1997 in Relation to the Gross National Product (Calculated for Each Metric Tonne)
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous wastes and other wastes generated in 1997 in relation to gross national product, by parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Reporting parties on Import data in 1997
This graphics displays the 1997 situation on parties to the Basel convention and their national reporting in waste import to the convention secretariat. Most OECD countries have reported their imports and an additional b...
06 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes Among all Reporting Parties in 1997
This graphic shows the total transboundary movement in 1997 of hazardous wastes and other wastes among all reporting parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Generation of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes by Y Categories in 1997 in Million Metric Tonnes
This graphic shows the generation of hazardous wastes and other wastes by Y categories in 1997, in millions of metric tonnes, by some of the parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Ha...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes in 1997 in Metric Tonnes
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous wastes and other wastes, in metric tonnes, that were imported and exported in 1997 between OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries and non-OECD ...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Hazardous Waste and Other Wastes Generated per Capita in 1997 in Kilogrammes
This graphic shows the amounts of hazardous waste and other wastes, in kilograms, that were generated per capita in 1997 by parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes an...
06 Mar 2006 - by GRID-Arendal
Grain production in the world, 1950-1995 and projection for 2050
Shows the grain production in the world from 1950 to 1995 and predicts trendsuntil 2050. Inconsistency in production over the last several years has resulted in declining inventories as annual consumption has exceeded an...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential renewable energy by region
In million tonnes of oil equivalent: wind, solar energy, biomass and hydroelectricity, comparison between different regions. All these energy sources stand as possible renewable alternatives to nuclear power and fossil f...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World production of wheat, corn and rice
The graphic shows the global production of wheat, corn and rice from 1960 to 1994. The graphic demontrates the definete increase in production of all three types of crops, wheat overall being the most widely produced.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Evolution of the world grain production, comparision with China and United-States
The graphic compares the evolution of the grain production of China and the United States to world statistics from 1960 to 1995. the graphic demonstrates the overall increase in grain production globally, as well as Chin...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Grain production in selected countries
Trends in grain production 1950-1996 for Africa, China, Europe And United states, in millions of tonnes. Grains represent a basic food resource, and is a good indication on the relative production and food supply in the ...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in tourism
Shows the amount of international tourist and the amount of tourist receipts from 1950 to 2000. Tourism, which has expanded dramatically over the past 50 years, looks set to continue growing, as societies become more mob...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Grain production, comparison in time between continents
Illustrates the growth in grain production, by continent, with the average annual production in the sixties in comparison to the average annual production in the early ninties. The production has increased in all parts o...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends and projections in rural and urban population in developing regions and high-income countries
Shows the population growth rate of both rural and urban areas from around the world from 1960 and predicting total for 2025 using World Bank projections. The level of people living in cities are constantly increasing, a...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wind power generation per region
Wind energy generating capacity, trends in the time period 1980-1995, in megawatts for Asia, Europe And Northern America. Wind power remains one of the cleanest alternatives to fossil fuels and nuclear power.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World grain production
Grain production in the world, millions of tonnes, from 1950-1995. Cereals represent a staple food and the basis of most diets, and is a key to achieving food security and food for all people on the planet.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in wind generating capacity
Global development of wind in the form of wind power plants between 1980-1995, in megawatts. Wind power represents one of the most attractive and clean alternative and renewable power sources, utilizing the inhert power ...
01 Oct 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Grain production in Rwanda
The graphic shows the grain production in Rwanda in metric tonnes from 1960 to 1995. the graphic shows the dramatic reduction in grain production in the 1990s to one third of peak levels. The main grain crops produced ar...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional trends in wind power generation
Wind power remains one of the cleanest alternatives to fossil fuels and nuclear power. Wind energy generating capacity, trends in the period 1980-1995, in megawatts for Asia, Europe And Northern America.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in wind energy generating capacity
Net annual addition to global wind energy generating capacity, general trend 1980-1995, in megawatts. Wind power represents a possible energy source to replace fossil fuels, like oil and coal, as well as non-renewable en...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Evolution of the world grain production, comparison World, Europe, China, Africa
The graph Compares the amount of grain production of Europe, China and Africa to the world. It shows Europe as both the leading grain producer and as the region with the most dramatic increase in grain production since 1...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in the ice-breaking date in the Tornio river, Finland
The icebreaking date for the Tornio River in Finland has been recorded since 1693. With the increased greenhouse effect, impacts on the cryosphere are likely. One impact will be less ice on rivers and lakes. Freeze-up da...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Development of fossil fuel resources in the Arctic, 2005
Barents Sea: The 2004 lifting of an embargo on offshore hydrocarbon exploration in the Norwegian Barents has renewed activity there. Regulation of exploration is animportant political issue. Debate in 2005 focused on env...
13 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic sea routes - Northern sea route and Northwest passage
Sea routes along the edges of the Arctic ocean, or rather along the coasts of Northern Canada and Russia, holds potential for decreasing the number of days in shipping goods from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts in Europe ...
13 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Wetlands in the Baltic Sea drainage basin
Percentage of wetlands out of total land area (by grid cell) for the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Wetlands acts as buffers in cases such as antropogenic nutrient releases (which leads to eutrophication) and acidification. ...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land cover - Baltic Sea region
The Baltic Sea region is covered in primarily forested land and crop land, in the taiga and temperate forest regions. Agricultural land is a main driver for nutrient inputs to the Baltic Sea, and thus eutorphication, and...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Baltic Sea drainage basin
This 'basemap' displays the extent of the drainage basin (the boundary for the water that ends up in the Baltic Sea), and the countries in the region. The drainage basin represents all water that drains into the sea, thr...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Malaria risk and climate change
Plasmodium vivax, with the Anopheles mosquito as a vector, is an organism causing malaria. The main climate factors that have bearing on the malarial transmission potential of the mosquito population are temperature and ...
17 May 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Radiative forcing - energy balances and the greenhouse effect
Radiative forcing is the change in the balance between radiation coming into the atmosphere and radiation going out. A positive radiative forcing tends on average to warm the surface of the Earth, and negative forcing te...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change and vector-borne diseases
Climate change and altered weather patters would affect the range (both altitude and latitude), intensity, and seasonality of many major tropical vector-borne and other infectious diseases - such as malaria and dengue fe...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in permafrost temperature in Fairbanks (Alaska)
With a doubling of atmospheric CO2, it is likely that there will be increases in the thickness of the active layer permafrost and the disappearance of most of the ice-rich discontinous permafrost over a century-long time...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in global temperatures
The figure shows the combined land-surface air and sea surface temperatures (degrees Centigrade) 1861 to 1998, relative to the average temperature between 1961 and 1990. The mean global surface temperature has increased...
06 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature trends and projections
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean temperature changes relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Climate models calculate that the global mean surface temperature could rise by about 1 to 4.5 cen...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Scenarios of sea level rise, now - 2100
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean sea level increases relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Taking into account the ranges in the estimate of climate sensitivity and ice melt parameters, and...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise due, past and scenarios due to global warming
Over the last 100 years, the global sea level has risen by about 10 to 25 cm. Sea level change is difficult to measure. Relative sea level changes have been derived mainly from tide-gauge data. In the conventional tide-g...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change impact on mountain vegetation zones
The figure shows a comparison of current vegetation zones at a hypothetical dry temperate mountain site with simulated vegetation zones under a climate-warming scenario. Mountains cover about 20% of the Earth's continent...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from industry
This map depicts the unequal distribution of industry in the world. The significant part of carbon dioxide emissions comes from energy production, industrial processes and transport. The industrialised countries conseque...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Main greenhouse gases
The table lists some of the main greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane, and freons) and their concentrations in pre-industrial times and in 1994; atmospheric lifetimes; anthropogenic sources; and Global Warmi...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (1959-1998)
CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have been measured at an altitude of about 4,000 meters on the peak of Mauna Loa mountain in Hawaii since 1958. The measurements at this location, remote from local sources of polluti...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The carbon cycle
The global carbon cycle shows the carbon reservoirs in GtC (gigatonne= one thousand million tonnes) and fluxes in GtC/year. The indicated figures are annual averages over the period 1980 to 1989. The component cycles ar...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate scenarios for cereal production
The figure shows change in cereals production under three different GCM equilibrium scenarios (percent from base estimated in 2060). While there are still uncertainties about whether climate change will cause global agri...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in CO2 and climate: assumptions in the IPCC 1992 scenarios
Projected anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use, deforestation and cement production are shown for some of the IPCC emission scenarios. The highest emission scenario - IS92e - assumes moderate population grow...
06 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential climate change impacts
If greenhouse gas concentrations keep rising, climatic changes are likely to result. Those changes will potentially have wide-ranging effects on the environment and socio-economic and related sectors, such as health, agr...
23 Feb 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Potential impact of sea level rise: Nile Delta
Rising sea level would destroy weak parts of the sand belt, which is essential for the protection of lagoons and the low-lying reclaimed lands in the Nile delta of Egypt (Mediterranean Sea). The impacts would be very ser...
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse effect
Human activities are causing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere to increase. This graphic explains how solar energy is absorbed by the earth's surface, causing the earth to warm and to emit infrared radiation. The g...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater stress and risk
One study suggests that although global water conditions may worsen by 2025 due to population pressure, climate change could have a net positive impact on global water resources. NB! Note that other studies indicate tha...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that clima...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda
Developing countries, whose economies often rely heavily on one or two agricultural products, are especially vulnerable to climate change. This graphic shows that with an increase of only 2 degrees Celsius, there would b...
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in the ice-breaking date in the Tornio river, Finland
The icebreaking date for the Tornio River in Finland has been recorded since 1693. With the increased greenhouse effect, impacts on the cryosphere are likely. One impact will be less ice on rivers and lakes. Freeze-up da...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice
Sea-ice draft is the thickness of the part of the ice that is submerged under the sea. Comparison of sea-ice draft data acquired on submarine cruises between 1993 and 1997 with similar data acquired between 1958 and 1976...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
IPCC structure
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability
The potential impacts of climate change on the environment and socio-economic systems can be understood in terms of sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability of the system, and this figure defines these terms.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nigeria and the freshwater challenge
Out of the total precipitation reaching Nigeria, it can be separated into green and blue water. Green water (79% of the precipitation) represents the fraction of rainfall that generates soil moisture and which supports t...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal issues in the islands of Comoros and Mayotte
With poverty and high population density this group of volcanic islands between Eastern Africa and Madagascar faces challenges in the management of the coastal environment. The islands are fringed by magnificent coral re...
23 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Woodfuel and energy consumption
Biomass, primarily woodfuel, is the major source of energy in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of South Africa. Over 90% of the total energy consumption is biomass in Ethiopia, DPR Congo and Tanzania. Projections e...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Current and potential arable land use in Africa
Out of the total land area in Africa, only a fraction is used for arable land. Using soil, land cover and climatic characteristics a FAO study has estimated the potential land area for rainfed crops, excluding built up a...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. The majority of the catches in some of the areas of the coast are not primarily by the coastal countries, but rather as in thi...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agriculture in Africa, value added out of GDP
For the future of Africa, agriculture remains one of the most important issues. A majority of the population, especially outside urban areas, are involved in agriculture, and food security is one of the most important is...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender equality and empowerment of women: eliminate differences in education
In increasing living standards, sustainability and livelihoods and eliminating poverty, gender equality and education are seen as some of the main means. This is further recognized in the Millennium Development Goals, as...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Africa: Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
The process initiated by UNEP in 1995, materialised as the Stockholm convention in May 2001. The convention bans chemicals such as chlordane, DDT and PCB and other organic pesticides and industrial chemicals, as well as ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Loss of Great Ape habitat 2002-2032 (Africa)
Based on population pressures the GLOBIO2 model has assessed the current and future human impacts on Great Ape habitat in Africa (Chimpanzee, Bonobo and Gorilla). The analysis shows a vast reduction of some of the world'...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sub-Saharan Africa: Mineral resources and political instability
Africa, south of Sahara, is a region with plenty of valuable mineral resources - metals, oil and diamonds. Foreign investments lead the extraction and exploration in many of these places to supply the world markets. This...
02 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Le Monde Diplomatique
Population and growth, projections and historic data
The population has rapidly increased in Africa, to reach approximately 905 million inhabitants by 2005. The rate of the annual growth is levelling out after seeing a peak around 1990. Out of the sub-regions, the populati...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive alien plants in South Africa
Species that has been introduced on purpose or spread in the wild threaten livelihoods in agriculture or water resources. As illustrated in this map, some regions of South Africa have very high ratios of invasive alien p...
23 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, a supplement to the convention on biological diversity, has strong support in Africa, with a majority of the countries as signatories. In addition, several countries have, in the past...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions of carbon dioxide, in Africa and selected OECD countries
Africa represents only a small fraction, 3.6%, out of the total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year, yet 14% of the population of the world lives here. The emissions per inhabitant in Libya, the Seychelles and South ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pesticides stockpiles in Africa
Mountains of obsolete pesticides are stockpiled in Africa. Problems with labelling, storage, and the supply of unsuitable products, means that they sit around unused, some for as long as 40 years. They include poisons lo...
02 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal