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Density of cabins in Norway, 2003 Density of cabins in Norway, 2003
Density of cabins in Norway, 2003
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cabins along the Southern coast of Norway Cabins along the Southern coast of Norway
Cabins along the Southern coast of Norway
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Average density of cabins per area in Norwegian fylker, 2003 Average density of cabins per area in Norwegian fylker, 2003
Average density of cabins per area in Norwegian fylker, 2003
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Multinational networks and the exploitment of natural resources in developing countries Multinational networks and the exploitment of natural resources in developing countries
A generalized diagram of how multinational networks exploit and natural resources in developing countries through numerous temporary subsidiaries and the use of corruption and security firms to ensure rapid exploitation and maximum profits - but still having their hands 'clean'. Arms trading has been reported from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, while the bribes and 'security firms' also play a major role in Indonesia.
22 Jan 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Indonesian exports of forest products Indonesian exports of forest products
Exports of wood products from Indonesia, with final destinations such as China, Japan and North America. Almost three quarters of the wood end in destinations in Asia. In the black market, with illegal timber, the products are known to change country of origin and their labeling and classification as they are smuggled.
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Current and future threats from illegal logging and mining in national parks in Indonesia Current and future threats from illegal logging and mining in national parks in Indonesia
The management and enforcement of the protection regime in Indonesia is insufficient, and illegal activities - such as logging and mining, is rampant. The RAPPAM methodology, developed by WWF, has been used to assess the relative pressures and threats using questionnaires and workshops. Borneo and Sumatra are home to the Orangutan, and the protected areas represent vital habitat for the survival of the species.
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Routes for exports of illegally logged ramin timber in Indonesia Routes for exports of illegally logged ramin timber in Indonesia
Ramin, Gonystylus sp., is a group of tropical hardwood species in South East Asia, listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red list, and the trade of the timber is regulated under CITES. Illegal logging of these species is common in Indonesia, even in protected areas. The timber is transported to sawmills in Indonesia and Malaysia and further exported to destinations in Asia, North America, Europe and elsewhere. Final market prices might amount to as hi...
22 Jan 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Extent of deforestation in Borneo 1950-2005, and projection towards 2020 Extent of deforestation in Borneo 1950-2005, and projection towards 2020
The tropical lowland and highland forests of Borneo, including vast expanses of rainforest, have decreased rapidly after the end of the second world war. Forests are burned, logged and clear, and commonly replaced with agricultural land, built-up areas or palm oil plantations. These areas represent habitat for species, such as Orangutan and elephants.
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Orangutan distribution on Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia) Orangutan distribution on Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia)
The distribution of Orangutan on Borneo is rapidly decreasing, as mankind is reducing the available habitat for the apes. The loss of forest, through logging, clearing and burning, means reduced opportunities for hiding and food collection. In addition, orangutans are hunted for food and to be held in captivity.
22 Jan 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security priority areas in Eastern Europe Environment and security priority areas in Eastern Europe
Environmental problems often compound external security tensions and worsen internal security challenges in Eastern Europe. Of particular concern are environmental hazards concentrated along national borders (including the borders with the EU, Russia and borders between the three countries).
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population evolution Population evolution
The populations of Ukraine and Belarus will shrink significantly, with Ukraine expected to lose 9 to 15 million people over the next 50 years (see population figure). Outgoing labour migration makes the situation even worse, hitting Moldova particularly hard, with an estimated 600,000 to 1,000,000 Moldovans (i.e. 40% of the active population) working abroad.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy resources, production and transportation Energy resources, production and transportation
Energy is vital for the internal and external security of all three countries (see figure). A secure, affordable domestic energy supply is critical to economic development, particularly in energy hungry industrial sectors. It is also essential to meet social needs (heating, transportation, etc.) especially for vulnerable groups.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Ukraine Environment and security issues in Ukraine
Compared to its neighbours, Ukraine has a very low Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) (ranking 108 out of 146 countries; Esty et al. 2005). This is primarily due to the high energy and pollution-intensity of its industry, pressure on ecosystems due to intensive agriculture, water stress on part of its territory, and insufficiently developed environmental institutions.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross National Income (GNI): Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine Gross National Income (GNI): Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine
Though expanding, the region’s economies still lag behind most of their neighbours, with Moldova one of the poorest European countries in terms of per capita GDP. All the countries suffered economic decline in the 1990s followed by some recovery over the last five to ten years (see GNI figure).
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The continental scale of the Chernobyl accident The continental scale of the Chernobyl accident
The accident involving reactor meltdown and massive release of radioactivity occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant situated seven kilometres south of the Ukraine- Belarus border, at the confluence of the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers. Radioactive fallout affected not only Ukraine and Belarus, but also nearby Russia and countries as far away as Sweden and the UK.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy - environment - security interactions Energy - environment - security interactions
Recently energy demand in the region has reached and surpassed the 1991 level at the same time as the world oil prices have increased dramatically. Russia, for its part, has started a reappraisal of the political and economic costs and benefits of providing indirect energy subsidies. These factors are forcing the three countries to urgently rethink their energy supply options.
07 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Moldova Environment and security issues in Moldova
Since water resources are of particular importance to Moldova, water pollution is viewed as a nationally significant threat. Moldova does not have large lakes, and all its larger rivers originate outside its borders. there are many other issues facing Moldova's environment and security future.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Peoples of Eastern Europe Peoples of Eastern Europe
Despite common borders and many similarities, the three countries of Eastern Europe do not constitute a region in the sense of political community. Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine have not yet developed visible capacity and projects for regional integration.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine
The Concept of National Security of Belarus focuses on both external and internal security issues. It directly refers to environmental problems such as global climate change, trans-boundary transport of pollution and the risk of serious accidents at industrial facilities located in Belarus and other countries close to Belarus borders, land degradation and radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Eastern Europe through history Eastern Europe through history
The region’s borderline position has determined its many specific features. Neighbouring cultures deeply penetrated and influenced Eastern European societies, shaping contrasting developmental orientations. Eastern European lands changed hands many times in history and in some periods they were split between Western and Eastern powers. This is a glimpse of 4 periods between 1000 A.D. to 1938 A.D.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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