Graphics Library >> Recent

Recent

Global environmental trends
Environmental degradation trends from all the continents are alarmingly increasing. This graphic presents the status by world regions, in four different categories, and for seven different types of environmental degradat...
01 Jan 1998 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Access to safe drinking water
There are currently more than 1000 million people in the world that lacks access to an easily accessible and safe water source, such as a connection to water mains or a protected well. Instead, water access is limited or...
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global atmospheric concentration of CO2 1870-1990
Historically the developed countries of the world have emitted most of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The U.S. emits most in total, and is one of the countries with highest emissions per capita. China is the second ...
28 Sep 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Global International Water Assessment tools (GIWA)
The graphic shows the process of GIWA's assessment methodology and list the five main concerns dealing with water resources, which are freshwater shortage, pollution, habitat and community modification, unsustainable exp...
28 Sep 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
World consumption and prognoses of primary energy
The graphic shows the world oil, natural gas and coal consumption from various regions in comparison to the world totals. It Shows trends from 1990 to 2001, and predicts the patterns to 2020. The use of oil is predicted ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coral reefs at risk from human activities
Population growth and technology: operating together these two factors account for the major causes of coral reef decline - excessive domestic and agricultural waste pouring into ocean waters, poor land-use practices tha...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional alkalinity trends
Measuring alkalinity determins a stream's ability to neutralize acidic pollution from rainfall or wastewater. Alkalinity refers to the ability of water to resist change in pH. The graphic shows global comparison of alkal...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water poverty index, by country in 2002
Freshwater, as a natural resource, represents a fundamental key to sustainable livelihoods - for health, economy and development. The water poverty index (WPI) is an aggregate index, describing the lack of freshwater. Th...
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic pelagic food web
The marine animal food chain is very complex and multilayered as are most food chains. This is a quick reference to represent the complete food chain in regards to pelagic crustaceans and invertebrates.
28 Sep 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Wilderness in Norway and Europe
This map shows wilderness in Norway and Svalbard. For the Norway map wilderness is defined as areas more than 5 km from roads, railways, power lines and other major man-made changes/installations. The European map uses a...
28 Sep 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Total energy supply in 1995
Total primary energy supply per capita is a common, albeit an imperfect measure of energy efficiency in a country. For instance, neither the impact of climate on energy use (heating, cooling) nor the size of the country ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in shipping
The graphic displays the development of seaborne trade in crude oil and products to other major bulks and dry goods. It covers the period from 1970 to 2000. The growth in maritime transportation is strongly correlated wi...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Contribution of fish to human diet
The percentage of fish to the total human diet from various regions in the world. Based on statistics from 1987 to 1989. Fish is the last wild meal in the human diet, but roughly two-thirds of the world’s major stocks ar...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sehukhuneland household surveys
For SEI
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The DPSIR Framework
DPSIR is a general framework for organising information and reporting about state of the environment covering Driving forces, Pressures, State of the environment, Impacts and Responses. The idea of the framework was howe...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional trends in biological oxygen demand
The graphic is a global comparison of the biological oxygen demand measured in milligrams per litre. It covers the years from 1976 - 2000. The biological oxygen demand refers to the amount of oxygen required by aerobic m...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Antarctic convergence
The Antarctic convergence represents an important climatic boundary between air and water masses, and is also an approximate boundary for the Southern Ocean, surrounding the Antarctic continent. The water around the land...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gross product per person 1950-1994
The graphic shows the evolution of gross world product per person from 1950 to 1994 in U.S Dollars. It clearly shows the steady and periodically dramatical growth of the gross world product per person since 1950.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use change
2 thematical maps: (1) CO2 emissions from industrial processes (http://www.grida.no/climate/vital/09.htm): This map depicts the unequal distribution of industry in the world. The significant part of carbon dioxide emiss...
28 Sep 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Trends in energy consumption
The graphic shows the total world energy consumption from 1970 to 2001, with projections to 2020. It shows the trend of increasing energy use since 1970, continuing until 2020. Over the last decade developed countries ha...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Private and public Economic aid flows to developing countries
The graphic shows the trends in aid flow from 1990 to 1996 between private and public groups. Public aid largely refers to nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), made up of the deve...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tourism in the Antarctic
the graph shows the number of tourist and ships going to the Antarctic from 1981 to 1996. It shows a steady increase of both tourists and ships going to antarctica. Studies have been done to estimate the effects the incr...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratio of discards from fisheries
The graphic shows the amount of discards in the fishing industry from 1988 to 1992. It is broken down into overall, fish, crustaceans and squid categories. Initiatives have been taken by several organisations, seeking to...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Loss of tropical forest in developing regions, 1980-1990
The graphic shows the amount and rate of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa from 1980 to 1990. Tropical forests are earth's most complex biome in terms of both structure and spe...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Status on cost of establishing a business (compared to per capita income)
Bureaucracy and administration by local and national government can present a stumbling block for establishing businesses - in particular for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. Removing and simplifying these proc...
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice)
The coastal Arctic food web is closely related to drift ice conditions and seasonal use of shorelines by both terrestrial and sea mammals. Numerous species depend upon each other and the transport of food to and from the...
28 Sep 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Estimated value of marine biomes
An estimation of the financial value of selected different marine areas. Marine biomes are divided between coral reefs, estuaries, and oceans. The marine biome covers 75% of the earth's surface, and accounts for 90% of t...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World consumption and prognoses of primary energy
Consumption of non-renewable resources ahve been increasing in most of the world except Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. This graphic shows the world oil, natural gas and coal consumption from various regions ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96
The graphic shows the trend of the number of harmful algal blooms in the Western Atlantic from 1970 to 1996. The excess growth of algae is often caused by pollution, and can have negative or fatal effects on some species...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World gas consumption
The graphic shows the world gas consumption from various regions in comparison to the world totals. It shows trends from 1990 to 1999 and predicts the patterns to 2020. It shows an increase in gas consumption in all regi...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deforestation in Rondonia (Brazil) in the nineties
The graph shows deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil. Brazil covers more than one quarter of the worlds tropical forests. Since 1980 the deforestation has steadily increased. Deforestration can occur as a result of the clea...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The decrease of Arctic sea ice, minimum extent in 1982 and 2007, and climate projections
Sattelite observations of the september extent of sea ice in the Arctic shows in 2007 shows a 23% decrease from the previous minimum, in 2005, and 39% below the average minimum extent for the time period 1979-2000. The b...
01 Dec 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total and indigenous populations of the Arctic: Alaska
The graphic shows the population between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Alaska. The indigenous peoples include Iñupiaq and Yup'ik Inuit, Alutiq (Aleuts) and Athapaskans. The highest concentrations of these peopl...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of trees planted, world map - UNEP Billion Tree Campaign, May 2008
The UNEP Billion Tree Campaign represents a unique worldwide tree planting initiative, aimed at empowering citizens to corporations and people up to presidents to embrace the climate change challenge. By 2008, 18 months ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Calorie consumption in selected regions of the world (1975-1995)
Most of the world has increased in daily calorie intake expcet for Europe and Central Asia. This graph is comparing per-capita calorie consumption in North America, Europe and Central Asia, Africa, and the world average ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global energy use 1994
Shows Global energy use 1994
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global fisheries stock
The graphic compares biomass to fish mortality to summarize the amount of exploitation on fish stocks globally. Fish is considered important to human diet, but roughly two-thirds of the world’s major stocks are now fishe...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sites with dead zones (oxygen depletion on the sea bottom)
Dead zones (hypoxic i.e. oxygen deficient water) in the coastal zones are increasing, typically surrounding major industrial and agricultural centers. This is commonly occuring due to nutrient pollution, in the form of n...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deep waters within and beyond areas of national jurisdiction in East Africa
The figure demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of marine areas under national jurisdiction in East Africa are deeper than 200 metres (dark blue). Areas in red indicate where the geology/geomorphology might justif...
01 Feb 2008 - by UNEP-WCMC and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003)
The two main reasons for sea-level rise are thermal expansion of ocean waters as they warm, and increase in the ocean mass, principally from land-based sources of ice (glaciers and ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenla...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratio of wastewater treatment
Sewage treatment is low or absent in many parts of the World, leading to eutrophication of the coastal zone, (toxic) algae blooms and dramatically reduce the ability of coral to recover from bleaching events dramatically...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human impact in the coastal zones
Infrastructure development, intensive agricultural expansion, urbanisation and coastal development are increasing the flow of sediments and sewage into the ocean. The situation is most severe around Europe, the East coas...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea
With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing
Knowledge and mapping of these processes is still scarce due to uneven research effort. The map shows sites with known dense shelf water cascading phenomena, which often may involve the 'flushing' effect. It is most like...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World fisheries hotspots, 2004
The World’s most productive fishing grounds are confined to major hotspots, less than 10% of the World oceans. The maps shows annual catch (tonnes per km2) for the World’s oceans. Notice the strong geographic concurrence...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
depth
About depth
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
scenario
About scenario
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of coldwater and tropical coral reefs
Coral reefs are marine ridges or mounds, which have formed over millennia as a result of the deposition of calcium carbonate by living organisms, predominantly corals, but also a rich diversity of other organisms such as...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
canyondsw
About canyondsw
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
stocks
About stocks
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in natural disasters
With growing population and infrastructures the world’s exposure to natural hazards is inevitably increasing. This is particularly true as the strongest population growth is located in coastal areas (with greater exposur...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change and tropical coral reefs, scenarios for bleaching events
Projected areas of above normal sea temperature where coral bleaching is likely to occur for the SRES A2 scenario (continuing current trends) by two different models, the PCM (1.7°C increase in 100 years) and the HadCM3 ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase from land use changes and emissions from fossil fuels - so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process. The skeletons of ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) - Mauna Loa or Keeling curve
Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is steadily rising, and oceans directly assimilate CO2. As ocean concentration of CO2 increases, the oceans automatically become more acidic. This, in turn, may have severe impacts on co...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
shelfwater
About shelfwater
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habit...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Primary threats to the marine environment
Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmentation and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs et...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios
The impacts of coral reefs from rising sea temperatures. When coral reefs become heat-exposed they die, leaving the white dead coral, also known as bleaching. With even moderate pollution, the coral are easily overgrown ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the mo...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
scenarios
About scenarios
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical cyclone frequency
Tropical cyclones, or hurricanes or typhoons, are storm weather systems, characterised by a low pressure centre, thunderstorms and high windspeeds. As the name testifies, these occur in the areas between the tropics, in ...
09 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in fisheries and aquaculture production (2000-2005)
The world's marine fisheries have stagnated or slightly declined in the last decade, offset only by increases in aquaculture production. A major reason why the decline has not become more evident is likely because of adv...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Water has long been associated with conflicts between neighbouring countries. This graphic shows how water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is used in Iraq, and that neighbouring Syria and Turkey influence the flow o...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) case studies
The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) is an example of a comprehensive strategic assessment designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters. This graphic shows GIWA...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in continental river discharge
River flow is cyclical in nature, with alternating cycles of wet and dry years. This graphic uses bar graphs to show the average annual volumes of river runoff in cubic kilometres for each continent from 1921 to 1985. Ov...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global International Waters Assessment Tools
Global International Waters Assessment's (GIWA) assessment tools for monitoring the world's water resources, incorporating five major environmental concerns and application of the DPSIR framework (driving forces-pressure...
17 May 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Coastal population and altered coastal zones
Coastal areas with high population densities are those with the most shoreline degradation or alteration. Densely populated areas close to seas are also the most attractive for a lot of economic activity. The graphic sho...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Benefits from marine and coastal ecosystems and activities
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. This graphic discusses the economic benefits of coastal tourism, trade a...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global capture fisheries and aquaculture production, 1950-1999
The global fisheries catch has levelled off, reflecting a growing decline in most major fishing areas. This graphic shows the amount of global aquaculture production and of global capture fishery catches in millions of t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global sediment loads
Asia exhibits the largest runoff volumes and, therefore, the highest levels of sediment discharge. This graphic shows the amounts of suspended sediments discharged, in millions of tonnes per year, in the major regions of...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global freshwater resources: quantity and distribution by region
Glaciers and icecaps contain approximately 70% of the world's freshwater, but groundwater is by far the most abundant and readily available source of freshwater. This graphic illustrates the quantity (in cubic kilometres...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water withdrawal and consumption
Freshwater use is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiography, and climatic characteristics. This graphic illustrates freshwater use, in cubic kilometres per year, from ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aral Sea: trends and scenarios
The demise of the Aral Sea was caused primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya rivers to provide irrigation water for local croplands. This graphic shows the disappearance of the Aral Sea fro...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Groundwater contamination from canals - Hat Yai, Thailand
In areas where surface water is not readily available (located far away from areas where it is needed), groundwater is the primary water source. This graphic shows the chloride concentration and the potassium concentrati...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater withdrawal in agriculture, industry and domestic use
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater, primarily for irrigation of arable land. This graphic shows the relative percentages of water use by the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors in ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's surface water: precipitation, evaporation and runoff
The world's surface water is affected by different levels of precipitation, evaporation and runoff in different regions. This graphic illustrates the different rates at which these processes affect the major regions of t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater stress and scarcity in africa by 2025
According to Population Action International, based upon the UN medium population projections of 1998, more than 2.8 billion people in 48 countries will face water stress or water scarcity conditions by 2025. An area is ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater Stress 1995 and 2025
This graphic shows the amount of water withdrawal as a percentage of the total available supply, at the national level in 1995 and in 2025 (projected amounts). Overall, the percentages are expected to rise substantially ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Indications of structural changes in the marine ecosystem, catch ratios of predatory and plankton feeding fish
Three-quarters of fish stocks are currently exploited to the maximum extent, if not excessively. The Northeast Atlantic Ocean continues to exhibit declining catches, as well as a shift towards fish at lower levels in the...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Renewable freshwater supplies, per river basin
Freshwater represents a crucial sort for human development, for nature and for ecosystem services. This graphic compares freshwater supplies in cubic metres per capita, per river basin in 1995 with a projection of freshw...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fish diversity in freshwater systems
Although freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and wetlands occupy less than 2% of the Earth's total land surface, they provide a wide range of habitats for a significant proportion of the world's plant and animal ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Groundwater: aquifers, wells and circulation
This graphic illustrates groundwater flow, two types of aquifers (confined and unconfined) and three types of wells (artesian; flowing artesian and a water table well in an unconfined aquifer). It shows how groundwater i...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban and rural water supply and sanitation
The graphic shows the amount of water supply versus sanitation coverage between the world and developing nations in percentage. It shows statistics from 1990 and 2000, as well as comparing rural to urban.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater availability: groundwater and river flow
This graphic shows the availability of freshwater through average river flows and groundwater recharge, in cubic metres per capita per year, at the national level in the year 2000. The graphic highlights the countries wi...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Phosphate levels in major basins
A comparison of the major watersheds between the two decades showed that Northern Europe and North America had lower phosphate concentrations, while the Ganges and Brahmaputra watersheds in South Central Asia had higher ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level change: estimations and predictions
This resource includes four graphics that explain sea level change, an expected consequence of climate change. The first graphic, 'Relative Sea Level Over the Past 300 Years', shows the changes in sea level rise, in metr...
17 May 2005 - by GRID-Arendal
Trends in marine and freshwater populations
The Marine Species Population Index provides an assessment of the average change over time in the populations of 217 species of marine mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The index represents the average value of six reg...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's water cycle: schematic and residence time
The water cycle consists of precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration and runoff. This graphic explains the global water cycle, showing how nearly 577 000 km3 of water circulates through the cycle each year. A table...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major river basins of Africa
This map shows the locations of 13 major river basins in Africa: the Senegal, Volta, Niger, Lake Chad, Nile, Lake Turkana, Juba Shibeli, Ogooue, Congo, Zambezi, Okavango, Limpopo and Orange river basins.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen-depleted waters
This graphic illustrates that there is a strong correlation between the world's industrial areas and the areas in which seasonally oxygen-depleted waters occur. The accompanying text explains some of the effects of land-...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Alkalinity in major rivers
This graphic shows the average bicarbonate concentrations, in milligrams per litre, at major river mouths for the time periods 1976 to 1990 and 1991 to 2000. The graphic also shows the changes in average bicarbonate leve...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional trends in freshwater alkalinity
Alkalinity (as CaCO3) was analysed for all sampling stations available at the continental level. Concentrations remained reasonably steady between the two decades for Africa, Asia, South America and Australasia. Signific...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
From wetlands to dry lands: the destruction of the Mesopotamian marshlands
The Mesopotamian marshlands in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins were devastated by damming and river channelisation during the late 1980s. This graphic illustrates the decline in the area's marshlands by comparing t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in water consumption and evaporation
Throughout the 20th century, global water use has increased in the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors. Evaporation from reservoirs has increased at a slower rate. Projections indicate that both global water us...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastlines under threat
Out of the coastlines of the world, the coasts in Europe, Asia and Africa are of highest concern, and where extra care needs to be taken to ensure that measures are taken to protect the coasts in all aspects (erosion, bi...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Long-term variations in river flow, by continent
River runoff is cyclical in nature, with alternating cycles of wet and dry years. Significant deviations from average values differ in duration and magnitude. For example, 1940-44, 1965-68 and 1977-79 are clearly low per...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
River runoff by continent, 1921-1985
River runoff represents the accumlated water, from preciptation and meltwater, that feeds into rivers that feeds into seas. The estimated annual figures in this graphic is what volume of water that ends up in the World O...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal