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Status on cost of establishing a business (compared to per capita income)
Bureaucracy and administration by local and national government can present a stumbling block for establishing businesses - in particular for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. Removing and simplifying these proc...
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice)
The coastal Arctic food web is closely related to drift ice conditions and seasonal use of shorelines by both terrestrial and sea mammals. Numerous species depend upon each other and the transport of food to and from the...
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated value of marine biomes
An estimation of the financial value of selected different marine areas. Marine biomes are divided between coral reefs, estuaries, and oceans. The marine biome covers 75% of the earth's surface, and accounts for 90% of t...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World consumption and prognoses of primary energy
Consumption of non-renewable resources ahve been increasing in most of the world except Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. This graphic shows the world oil, natural gas and coal consumption from various regions ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96
The graphic shows the trend of the number of harmful algal blooms in the Western Atlantic from 1970 to 1996. The excess growth of algae is often caused by pollution, and can have negative or fatal effects on some species...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World gas consumption
The graphic shows the world gas consumption from various regions in comparison to the world totals. It shows trends from 1990 to 1999 and predicts the patterns to 2020. It shows an increase in gas consumption in all regi...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deforestation in Rondonia (Brazil) in the nineties
The graph shows deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil. Brazil covers more than one quarter of the worlds tropical forests. Since 1980 the deforestation has steadily increased. Deforestration can occur as a result of the clea...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The decrease of Arctic sea ice, minimum extent in 1982 and 2007, and climate projections
Sattelite observations of the september extent of sea ice in the Arctic shows in 2007 shows a 23% decrease from the previous minimum, in 2005, and 39% below the average minimum extent for the time period 1979-2000. The b...
01 Dec 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total and indigenous populations of the Arctic: Alaska
The graphic shows the population between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Alaska. The indigenous peoples include Iñupiaq and Yup'ik Inuit, Alutiq (Aleuts) and Athapaskans. The highest concentrations of these peopl...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of trees planted, world map - UNEP Billion Tree Campaign, May 2008
The UNEP Billion Tree Campaign represents a unique worldwide tree planting initiative, aimed at empowering citizens to corporations and people up to presidents to embrace the climate change challenge. By 2008, 18 months ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Calorie consumption in selected regions of the world (1975-1995)
Most of the world has increased in daily calorie intake expcet for Europe and Central Asia. This graph is comparing per-capita calorie consumption in North America, Europe and Central Asia, Africa, and the world average ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global energy use 1994
Shows Global energy use 1994
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global fisheries stock
The graphic compares biomass to fish mortality to summarize the amount of exploitation on fish stocks globally. Fish is considered important to human diet, but roughly two-thirds of the world’s major stocks are now fishe...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sites with dead zones (oxygen depletion on the sea bottom)
Dead zones (hypoxic i.e. oxygen deficient water) in the coastal zones are increasing, typically surrounding major industrial and agricultural centers. This is commonly occuring due to nutrient pollution, in the form of n...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deep waters within and beyond areas of national jurisdiction in East Africa
The figure demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of marine areas under national jurisdiction in East Africa are deeper than 200 metres (dark blue). Areas in red indicate where the geology/geomorphology might justif...
01 Feb 2008 - by UNEP-WCMC and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003)
The two main reasons for sea-level rise are thermal expansion of ocean waters as they warm, and increase in the ocean mass, principally from land-based sources of ice (glaciers and ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenla...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratio of wastewater treatment
Sewage treatment is low or absent in many parts of the World, leading to eutrophication of the coastal zone, (toxic) algae blooms and dramatically reduce the ability of coral to recover from bleaching events dramatically...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human impact in the coastal zones
Infrastructure development, intensive agricultural expansion, urbanisation and coastal development are increasing the flow of sediments and sewage into the ocean. The situation is most severe around Europe, the East coas...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea
With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing
Knowledge and mapping of these processes is still scarce due to uneven research effort. The map shows sites with known dense shelf water cascading phenomena, which often may involve the 'flushing' effect. It is most like...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World fisheries hotspots, 2004
The World’s most productive fishing grounds are confined to major hotspots, less than 10% of the World oceans. The maps shows annual catch (tonnes per km2) for the World’s oceans. Notice the strong geographic concurrence...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
depth
About depth
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
scenario
About scenario
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of coldwater and tropical coral reefs
Coral reefs are marine ridges or mounds, which have formed over millennia as a result of the deposition of calcium carbonate by living organisms, predominantly corals, but also a rich diversity of other organisms such as...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
canyondsw
About canyondsw
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
stocks
About stocks
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in natural disasters
With growing population and infrastructures the world’s exposure to natural hazards is inevitably increasing. This is particularly true as the strongest population growth is located in coastal areas (with greater exposur...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change and tropical coral reefs, scenarios for bleaching events
Projected areas of above normal sea temperature where coral bleaching is likely to occur for the SRES A2 scenario (continuing current trends) by two different models, the PCM (1.7°C increase in 100 years) and the HadCM3 ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase from land use changes and emissions from fossil fuels - so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process. The skeletons of ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) - Mauna Loa or Keeling curve
Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is steadily rising, and oceans directly assimilate CO2. As ocean concentration of CO2 increases, the oceans automatically become more acidic. This, in turn, may have severe impacts on co...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
shelfwater
About shelfwater
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habit...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Primary threats to the marine environment
Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmentation and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs et...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios
The impacts of coral reefs from rising sea temperatures. When coral reefs become heat-exposed they die, leaving the white dead coral, also known as bleaching. With even moderate pollution, the coral are easily overgrown ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the mo...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
scenarios
About scenarios
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical cyclone frequency
Tropical cyclones, or hurricanes or typhoons, are storm weather systems, characterised by a low pressure centre, thunderstorms and high windspeeds. As the name testifies, these occur in the areas between the tropics, in ...
09 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in fisheries and aquaculture production (2000-2005)
The world's marine fisheries have stagnated or slightly declined in the last decade, offset only by increases in aquaculture production. A major reason why the decline has not become more evident is likely because of adv...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Water has long been associated with conflicts between neighbouring countries. This graphic shows how water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is used in Iraq, and that neighbouring Syria and Turkey influence the flow o...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) case studies
The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) is an example of a comprehensive strategic assessment designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters. This graphic shows GIWA...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in continental river discharge
River flow is cyclical in nature, with alternating cycles of wet and dry years. This graphic uses bar graphs to show the average annual volumes of river runoff in cubic kilometres for each continent from 1921 to 1985. Ov...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global International Waters Assessment Tools
Global International Waters Assessment's (GIWA) assessment tools for monitoring the world's water resources, incorporating five major environmental concerns and application of the DPSIR framework (driving forces-pressure...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal population and altered coastal zones
Coastal areas with high population densities are those with the most shoreline degradation or alteration. Densely populated areas close to seas are also the most attractive for a lot of economic activity. The graphic sho...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Benefits from marine and coastal ecosystems and activities
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. This graphic discusses the economic benefits of coastal tourism, trade a...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global capture fisheries and aquaculture production, 1950-1999
The global fisheries catch has levelled off, reflecting a growing decline in most major fishing areas. This graphic shows the amount of global aquaculture production and of global capture fishery catches in millions of t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global sediment loads
Asia exhibits the largest runoff volumes and, therefore, the highest levels of sediment discharge. This graphic shows the amounts of suspended sediments discharged, in millions of tonnes per year, in the major regions of...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global freshwater resources: quantity and distribution by region
Glaciers and icecaps contain approximately 70% of the world's freshwater, but groundwater is by far the most abundant and readily available source of freshwater. This graphic illustrates the quantity (in cubic kilometres...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water withdrawal and consumption
Freshwater use is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiography, and climatic characteristics. This graphic illustrates freshwater use, in cubic kilometres per year, from ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aral Sea: trends and scenarios
The demise of the Aral Sea was caused primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya rivers to provide irrigation water for local croplands. This graphic shows the disappearance of the Aral Sea fro...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Groundwater contamination from canals - Hat Yai, Thailand
In areas where surface water is not readily available (located far away from areas where it is needed), groundwater is the primary water source. This graphic shows the chloride concentration and the potassium concentrati...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater withdrawal in agriculture, industry and domestic use
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater, primarily for irrigation of arable land. This graphic shows the relative percentages of water use by the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors in ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's surface water: precipitation, evaporation and runoff
The world's surface water is affected by different levels of precipitation, evaporation and runoff in different regions. This graphic illustrates the different rates at which these processes affect the major regions of t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater stress and scarcity in africa by 2025
According to Population Action International, based upon the UN medium population projections of 1998, more than 2.8 billion people in 48 countries will face water stress or water scarcity conditions by 2025. An area is ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater Stress 1995 and 2025
This graphic shows the amount of water withdrawal as a percentage of the total available supply, at the national level in 1995 and in 2025 (projected amounts). Overall, the percentages are expected to rise substantially ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Indications of structural changes in the marine ecosystem, catch ratios of predatory and plankton feeding fish
Three-quarters of fish stocks are currently exploited to the maximum extent, if not excessively. The Northeast Atlantic Ocean continues to exhibit declining catches, as well as a shift towards fish at lower levels in the...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Renewable freshwater supplies, per river basin
Freshwater represents a crucial sort for human development, for nature and for ecosystem services. This graphic compares freshwater supplies in cubic metres per capita, per river basin in 1995 with a projection of freshw...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fish diversity in freshwater systems
Although freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and wetlands occupy less than 2% of the Earth's total land surface, they provide a wide range of habitats for a significant proportion of the world's plant and animal ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Groundwater: aquifers, wells and circulation
This graphic illustrates groundwater flow, two types of aquifers (confined and unconfined) and three types of wells (artesian; flowing artesian and a water table well in an unconfined aquifer). It shows how groundwater i...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban and rural water supply and sanitation
The graphic shows the amount of water supply versus sanitation coverage between the world and developing nations in percentage. It shows statistics from 1990 and 2000, as well as comparing rural to urban.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater availability: groundwater and river flow
This graphic shows the availability of freshwater through average river flows and groundwater recharge, in cubic metres per capita per year, at the national level in the year 2000. The graphic highlights the countries wi...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Phosphate levels in major basins
A comparison of the major watersheds between the two decades showed that Northern Europe and North America had lower phosphate concentrations, while the Ganges and Brahmaputra watersheds in South Central Asia had higher ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level change: estimations and predictions
This resource includes four graphics that explain sea level change, an expected consequence of climate change. The first graphic, 'Relative Sea Level Over the Past 300 Years', shows the changes in sea level rise, in metr...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in marine and freshwater populations
The Marine Species Population Index provides an assessment of the average change over time in the populations of 217 species of marine mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The index represents the average value of six reg...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's water cycle: schematic and residence time
The water cycle consists of precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration and runoff. This graphic explains the global water cycle, showing how nearly 577 000 km3 of water circulates through the cycle each year. A table...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major river basins of Africa
This map shows the locations of 13 major river basins in Africa: the Senegal, Volta, Niger, Lake Chad, Nile, Lake Turkana, Juba Shibeli, Ogooue, Congo, Zambezi, Okavango, Limpopo and Orange river basins.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen-depleted waters
This graphic illustrates that there is a strong correlation between the world's industrial areas and the areas in which seasonally oxygen-depleted waters occur. The accompanying text explains some of the effects of land-...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Alkalinity in major rivers
This graphic shows the average bicarbonate concentrations, in milligrams per litre, at major river mouths for the time periods 1976 to 1990 and 1991 to 2000. The graphic also shows the changes in average bicarbonate leve...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional trends in freshwater alkalinity
Alkalinity (as CaCO3) was analysed for all sampling stations available at the continental level. Concentrations remained reasonably steady between the two decades for Africa, Asia, South America and Australasia. Signific...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
From wetlands to dry lands: the destruction of the Mesopotamian marshlands
The Mesopotamian marshlands in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins were devastated by damming and river channelisation during the late 1980s. This graphic illustrates the decline in the area's marshlands by comparing t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in water consumption and evaporation
Throughout the 20th century, global water use has increased in the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors. Evaporation from reservoirs has increased at a slower rate. Projections indicate that both global water us...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastlines under threat
Out of the coastlines of the world, the coasts in Europe, Asia and Africa are of highest concern, and where extra care needs to be taken to ensure that measures are taken to protect the coasts in all aspects (erosion, bi...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Long-term variations in river flow, by continent
River runoff is cyclical in nature, with alternating cycles of wet and dry years. Significant deviations from average values differ in duration and magnitude. For example, 1940-44, 1965-68 and 1977-79 are clearly low per...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
River runoff by continent, 1921-1985
River runoff represents the accumlated water, from preciptation and meltwater, that feeds into rivers that feeds into seas. The estimated annual figures in this graphic is what volume of water that ends up in the World O...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
River fragmentation and flow regulation
This graphic shows the number of new dams that were under construction in 1998. It also indicates the areas which are most affected by river channel fragmentation and flow regulation. River fragmentation is defined as th...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Causes of sea level rise from climate change
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This graphic explains the causes of sea level change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It expl...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nitrate in major rivers
Considering the data for all the rivers at the continental level, there has been little change in nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations between the two decades under comparison. Changes in the median value were not statisticall...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Biochemical oxygen demand is an indicator of the organic pollution of freshwater. Alkalinity (concentration of calcium carbonate or CaCO3) is another indicator of freshwater quality. These graphics compare the concentrat...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water consumption - top countries
Freshwater use is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiography, and climatic characteristics. This graphic illustrates the world's top 20 water consumers per capita, in c...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban water cycle
This graphic illustrates the impact of human activity on groundwater. It shows that groundwater is obtained from periurban wellfields and urban wells, then used and disposed of as wastewater through pluvial drainage, pip...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in fisheries - freshwater and marine capture fishery
The harvest of freshwater fish is likely to increase either through capture fisheries or aquaculture (otherwise known as 'fish farming'). This graphic shows inland capture fisheries trends at the national level for 1984 ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Lake Chad - decrease in area 1963, 1973, 1987, 1997 and 2001
Straddling the borders of Nigeria, Chad, Niger and Cameroon in West Africa, Lake Chad has been a source of freshwater for irrigation projects in all these countries. This graphic traces the shrinkage of Lake Chad and cha...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity
Similar to corals, the region of greatest mangrove diversity is in Southeast Asia, particularly around the Indonesian Archipelago (Burke et al., 2001). There are three distinct areas of seagrass diversity in the Pacific ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Species diversity in the world's seas
There is growing evidence that many marine species are less widely distributed, and therefore more vulnerable to extinction, than previously thought. This graphic shows the diversity of marine mammals, sharks, molluscs, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human activities leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most important threats to coastal [and marine] areas. This graphic shows the extent to which twelve different human activities cause environme...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Calcium levels in major rivers
This graphic shows the average calcium levels, in milligrams per litre, at major river mouths for the time periods 1976 to 1990 and 1991 to 2000. The graphic also shows the changes in average calcium levels between these...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
carbon_cycle
About carbon_cycle
17 May 2005 - by Not specified
Threats to the World's coral reefs
Major observed threats to the world's coral reefs include tourism, poison fishing, overexploitation, sedimentation, coral harvesting, dynamite fishing and pollution. This graphic explains which activities or conditions a...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends and forecasts in water use, by sector
Throughout the 20th century, global water use has increased in the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors. Evaporation from reservoirs has increased at a slower rate. Projections indicate that both global water us...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Shrinking of the Aral Sea: socio-economic impacts
Over the past 30 years, the Aral Sea in the former Soviet Union has shrunk to less than half of its original size. This graphic shows the Aral Sea as it was in 1960 and as it appeared in 2001. It shows that a former fish...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban water supply and wastewater on a shallow aquifer
This graphic shows the changes in water supply and wastewater disposal that occur through four stages of growth of a settlement: early settlement; the town becomes a city; the city expands and the city expands further. T...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
DPSIR framework for State of Environment Reporting
The DPSIR framework (Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) is used to assess and manage environmental problems. Driving forces are the socio-economic and socio-cultural forces driving human activities, which ...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global freshwater withdrawal: agricultural, industrial and domestic Use
This graphic makes it possible to compare water use by the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors at the national level. The graphic indicates which sectors are the dominant and significant users of water in each ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major river basins of the world
Rivers form a hydrological mosaic, with an estimated 263 international river basins covering 45.3% of the land surface area of the earth, excluding Antarctica. This graphic shows the locations of 26 of the world's major ...
01 Oct 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total global saltwater and freshwater estimates
Estimates of global water resources based on several different calculation methods have produced varied estimates. This graphic illustrates the proportions of saltwater and freshwater that make up the earth's water resou...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Region, topography and bathymetry
The Barents Region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway. The Barents Sea has anaverage depth 230 m, bordered by the shelf edge towards the Norwegian ...
01 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fiji, topographic map
The Republic of Fiji is a small island country in the South Pacific Ocean. The country has a population of 850 000 people spread out over an archipelago of islands. The largest ones, Viti Levu and Vanua Leva houses the m...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Region, topography and bathmetry
The Barents region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway. The Barents Sea has an average depth 230 m, bordered by the shelf edge towards the Norwegian...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal