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Summary of climate change patterns projected for 2100 in Latin America and the Caribbean Summary of climate change patterns projected for 2100 in Latin America and the Caribbean
Regional climate change patterns projected for the end of the century indicate that the Central American and Caribbean sub-regions will experience an increase in the intensity of hurricanes, along with a reduction in precipitation and a corresponding series of droughts. In Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Chile and Argentina, glaciers will continue to shrink, while countries with coasts on the Pacific and Atlantic Ocea...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of greenhouse gas emissions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 Share of greenhouse gas emissions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005
Data on carbon dioxide emissions makes it possible to identify the main emitting countries within Latin America and the Caribbean. Chief among the emitters is Brazil, accounting for 52%, which together with Mexico, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and Argentina accounted for 79% of the total greenhouse gas emissions of the region in 2005. While specific percentages (excluding emissions associated with land use changes) vary, these four countr...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy supply in Latin America Energy supply in Latin America
Although 70% of South America’s electricity comes from hydroelectric sources, the situation in Central America and the Caribbean is quite different. In these two regions electric-power generation rely predominantly on fossil fuels. For Latin America and the Caribbean overall, fossil fuels (primarily oil and natural gas) continued to be the most important source (76%) for producing energy in the year 2007. Of the energy produced in the region, onl...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean changes in runoff Mean changes in runoff
Changes in precipitation and temperature influence changes in runoff and the availability of water. Results from models of changes in runoff are consistent with predictions for precipitation. For 2090-2099, in areas for which increases in the rainfall regimen are expected, increases in runoff are also projected. The anticipated changes in runoff are based on the A1B climate change scenario which assumes future rapid demographic and economic growt...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Warming of the earth's surface Warming of the earth's surface
Climate projections for Latin America and the Caribbean indicate that temperature increases will vary according to the particular emissions scenario and country or region concerned. According to the A1B climate change scenario (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) regional increases this century are pro...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate impacts of El Niño Phenomenon in Latin America and the Caribbean Climate impacts of El Niño Phenomenon in Latin America and the Caribbean
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a natural phenomenon that has occurred for centuries. Ocean and atmospheric conditions in the Pacific tend to fluctuate between El Niño (warming) and a drop in temperature in the tropical Pacific known as La Niña. The fluctuations are rather irregular, but tend to appear every three to six years. A more intensive phase of each event may last for about a year. A warming climate may contribute to an increase i...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate impacts and tropical diseases in Colombia Climate impacts and tropical diseases in Colombia
Shows comparative trend between air temperature in Colombia and levels of malaria and dengue fever. When temperatures increase, especially in combination with more precipitation, vector borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever increase in frequency and distribution. In particular, areas where the minimum night temperatures increase provide the best conditions for the growth and spread of Anopheline spp. and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (McCarth...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changes to Coconut Beach (Dominica) after the 1995 hurricane season Changes to Coconut Beach (Dominica) after the 1995 hurricane season
During a period between May 1994 to September 1995 the profile of the beach dramatically changed. A rising sea level combined with more storms, washed away vulnerable beaches. With the sand gone, the coast is more vulnerable to waves going further inland, threatening fresh water wells with salinisation, leading to land erosion, and making the areas less attractive for tourism. When a beach starts to deteriorate, the process can be amazingly quick...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in regional average surface temperatures Trends in regional average surface temperatures
Latin America and the Caribbean follows the global trend of recent increases in temperatures. Observational records show that the region, with a few variations, has been warming through the 20th century. As in the rest of the world, the average temperature increased gradually from early 1900s except a somewhat cooler period in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s the temperature again started to increase and has continued to increase until today, ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Marine areas without protection in the Arctic Marine areas without protection in the Arctic
The coastal zones highlighted in this map include some of the very last continuous ecosystems where terrestrial, coastal and marine areas are industrially unexploited. Through co-management practices, indigenous peoples can retain their traditional subsistence rights while still protecting important traditional resources for future generations.
17 May 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Exploratory oil wells in the Mackenzie region of NWT,Canada Exploratory oil wells in the Mackenzie region of NWT,Canada
The Mackenzie delta and valley in the Northwest Territories, Canada (NWT) has seen a significant increase in the oil prospecting and exploration activity. This map shows the increase, over time, of oil wells between 1990 and 2001.
17 May 2005 - by Karl Cox, Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic, topography and bathymetry Arctic, topography and bathymetry
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in sub-arctic and boreal Alaska). The region has rivers and lakes, tundra and the largest forests in the world (the Russian Taiga).
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Permafrost distribution in the Arctic Permafrost distribution in the Arctic
Most of the Arctic is covered by ice and snow for more than eight and even up to twelve months a year, but conditions are highly variable, ranging from snow several metres deep each winter to the polar deserts of northern Greenland with only 50- 100 mm of precipitation annually. A large portion of the Arctic is underlain by permafrost. Permafrost, defined as ground that does not thaw for two or more years, can reach a thickness of up to 1000 metr...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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PCBs in the blood of Arctic residents PCBs in the blood of Arctic residents
Many POPs (persistent organic pollutants) and heavy metals from emissions further south are accumulated in Arctic food chains and ultimately in indigenous peoples. While fear of these compounds sometimes has resulted in abandonment of traditional foods, this has also led to more unhealthy food habits acquired from non-indigenous peoples. Most indigenous peoples in smaller communities still supply a large share of their household foods from natura...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice) Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice)
The coastal Arctic food web is closely related to drift ice conditions and seasonal use of shorelines by both terrestrial and sea mammals. Numerous species depend upon each other and the transport of food to and from the marine areas to the coast and inland. Indigenous peoples use most of the food chain and traditionally use both environments for hunting, fishing and gathering.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vegetation zones in the Arctic Vegetation zones in the Arctic
The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) project is an international effort to map the vegetation and associated characteristics of the circumpolar region, using a common base map. The base map is a false colour infrared image created from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major and minor settlements in the circumpolar Arctic Major and minor settlements in the circumpolar Arctic
Indigenous settlements in the Arctic. As in the past, today's settlements are usually located in resource-strategic positions, with territoriality and social networks adapted to the movements of reindeer/caribou or the seasonal abundance of sea mammals. Most indigenous settlements are small, consisting of only a handful of people, while others are communities of several thousand people. Notice that many dots simply represent seasonal settlements ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mercury levels in indigenous women Mercury levels in indigenous women
Many POPs (persistent organic pollutants) and heavy metals from emissions further south are accumulated in Arctic food chains and ultimately in indigenous peoples. While fear of these compounds sometimes has resulted in abandonment of traditional foods, this has also led to more unhealthy food habits acquired from non-indigenous peoples. Most indigenous peoples in smaller communities still supply a large share of their household foods from natura...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable source of information and a wealth of knowledge on human interactions with nature is encoded in these languages. If a language is lost, a world is lost. This deep knowledge and interconnectedness is expressed in Arctic song, subs...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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States, organizations and strategical issues in the Arctic: People across borders States, organizations and strategical issues in the Arctic: People across borders
Through numerous fora, Arctic peoples now seek to define a sustainable balance in their participation between the cash economy and their traditional pursuit. Their right to influence the future of the coastal regions is under heavy pressure from industrial fisheries and exploration activities based much further south.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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