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Emissions per GDP, 2005 (includes land use change) Emissions per GDP, 2005 (includes land use change)
Taking into account total CO2 emissions, including those associated with and use changes, the Latin American and Caribbean region rates poorly compared to other regions with regard to emissions of CO2 equivalent per US$ million of GDP produced. Latin America emits 1,152 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million, compared to 481 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million emitted by the OECD countries. This indicates that for each US$ million of G...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climatic events, a slow but significant reduction in the cryosphere (including glaciers) and a rise in sea levels. Available scientific evidence associates the phenomenon of climate change with increased concentrations of anthropogenic g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of the Brazilian Amazon Emissions of the Brazilian Amazon
Brazil has been recognized as the fifth highest emitter of greenhouse gasses in the world, and is also the highest emitter within the Latin American and Caribbean region. This high level of emission is first and foremost due land use changes within the country. In 2005, forest and grassland conversion was responsible for emitting more than one billion of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e) in the Brazilian Amazon.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on changes in local climate, and local variations in temperature and precipitation play a particularly important role in this. Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers all over the world, except in the Antarctica, indicate a general trend of global warming. In addition to its rapid decrease in size, the San Quintín glacier located in North Patagonia, Chile, has also been exhibiting cracks and f...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, Zoï Environment
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Sustainable development mechanism projects by type Sustainable development mechanism projects by type
Of the 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which have been implemented in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, the majority of the projects are related to renewable energy sources and reduction of methane (87% of the total). Only 1% of the CDM projects are related to transportation, 2% to forestation and reforestation, and 2% to fuel substitution. Consequently, there is a clear need for more ex...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP, 2005 (excludes land use change) Emissions per GDP, 2005 (excludes land use change)
Examining CO2 emissions in 2005, excluding those associated with land use changes, it can be seen that the Latin American and Caribbean region has a higher level of emissions per US$ million of GDP (598 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million) than the OECD countries (468 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million), but less than the world average (652 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Greenhouse gas emissions, 2005 (includes land use change) Greenhouse gas emissions, 2005 (includes land use change)
The disaggregation of emissions by type of gas makes clear the domination of carbon dioxide (CO2), both globally and at the regional level. On a country basis, the five top emitters in the world are China and the United States, followed by Russia and Japan. The fifth top emitter is Brazil, when greenhouse gas emission associated with land use change is taken into account.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Assosciate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Change in sea level as a result of changes in ocean density and circulation Change in sea level as a result of changes in ocean density and circulation
Changes in sea levels resulting exclusively from changes in ocean density and circulation patterns, results of atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) for climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) show that there will be significant spatial variability, i.e., changes ...
01 Oct 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector
According to reports from the region’s countries, contained in national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions relate to changes in land use, forestry, agriculture and energy consumption. Brazil stands out as the highest emitter of greenhouse gasses caused by land use changes, accounting for more than 800,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent. The importance of agricul...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Expected impacts of climate change in 2050 Expected impacts of climate change in 2050
It is expected that by 2050 there will be threats to ecosystem services in the Andes and Mexico, in the Central American and Caribbean sub-regions, and in southeastern Brazil, while there will be negative effects on fishing in the Pacific coastal areas of Peru and Chile. The decrease in precipitation will have adverse effects on agricultural yields in several regions and countries throughout the continent. Particularly noteworthy within Latin Ame...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon intensity of energy use: Percentage growth from 1980 Carbon intensity of energy use: Percentage growth from 1980
By comparing the emissions:energy ratio (carbon intensity) between regions, one finds different patterns over time. Thus, between 1980 and 1995, decarbonization in Latin America and the Caribbean was in line with the world average; in the first half of the 1980s, the region progressed even faster than the OECD countries. Later, between 1995 and 2003, the emissions-to-energy consumption ratio increased.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Retreat of tropical glaciers Retreat of tropical glaciers
The retreat of glaciers is a clear indication of how climate change is affecting the Latin American region. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador show evidence of reductions in the size of their glaciers. In Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia, the shrinkage of their glaciers, compared to 1970 and 1975, is even more striking. Since 1970 there has been a substantial reduction in the surface area of the smaller glacier...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (excludes land use change) Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (excludes land use change)
Evidence at international level shows a positive, although not a linear, relation between GHG emissions and the trajectory of the gross domestic product (GDP). There is a strong heterogeneity in the ratio of emissions to GDP (excluding land use change) among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, with Guyana and Bolivia standing as those countries with the highest levels of emissions per US$ 1 million of GDP produced.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Marginal abatement cost curve for Central America in 2030 Marginal abatement cost curve for Central America in 2030
Estimates of the marginal costs of emissions reduction for Central America show that decarbonization options should be directed towards energy efficiency in the residential and services sectors, mainly arising from savings due to reduced energy consumption. Similarly, the mitigation strategy should be focused towards reducing deforestation and degradation, with additional benefits for biodiversity and water supply. Sectors like transportation and...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Chacaltaya glacier Chacaltaya glacier
The retreat of glaciers is a clear indication of climate change in Latin America. Since the mid-1990s, the Chacaltaya glacier in the Plurinational State of Bolivia has lost half of its surface area and two thirds of its volume, endangering the long-term sustainability of the glacier (Francou et. al. 2003).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projects under the clean development mechanism Projects under the clean development mechanism
At present, 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been implemented throughout the Latin American and Caribbean region. The countries in the region with the greatest number of CDM projects are Brazil (with 42% of the total), Mexico (with 20%), Chile (with 8%) and Colombia (with 7%).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean
Latin America and the Caribbean has seen a recent increase in extreme climatic events, and with it a rise in the number of people affected. The number of storms between 2000 and 2009 increased by 12 compared to the period between 1970 and 1979. In this same time period, floods quadrupled. The number of people affected by extreme temperatures, forest fires, droughts, storms and floods grew from 5 million in the 1970s to more than 40 million in the...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Estimated deaths attributable to climate change, 2000 Estimated deaths attributable to climate change, 2000
The extent to which mortality is attributable to climate change remains a matter of intense debate. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2000 indicate that, in Latin America and the Caribbean, there were between 2 and 40 deaths per million inhabitants from floods, malaria and diarrhoea. In terms of regions, the most severe health effects have been in Africa, though significant effects are also being felt in Latin America and in certa...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Official Development Assistance Official Development Assistance
In addition to funds specifically for CDM projects, another source of funds for developing countries facing climate change are those designated as Official Development Assistance (ODA). Between 2000 and 2007, the region of Latin America and the Caribbean received 8.5% of these funds. One category of these resources is directed at providing development assistance that targets the objectives of the three Rio Conventions: the United Nations Conventi...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean
In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2), other greenhouse gasses that play an important role in the region are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These gasses are produced primarily in the sectors of waste management, mining, industrial processes, and in the production and distribution of natural gas, petroleum and agricultural products. Among the region’s countries, Brazil is the highest emitter of both methane and nitrous oxide. Other countries...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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