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Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming Simulated projections for Polar cod distribution with global warming
Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) was found to be sensitive to the warming scenarios and the model predicted that it would be extirpated in most of its range even under the milder warming scenario. This is due to its occurrence in the Arctic Ocean, which largely precludes it from moving northwards. Polar cod was predicted to be extirpated around Greenland and its abundance was largely reduced in other parts of the Arctic Ocean after 30 years of hypot...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution and trends of wild Rangifer in the Arctic Distribution and trends of wild Rangifer in the Arctic
Distribution and observed trends of wild Rangifer populations throughout the circumpolar Arctic (from The Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, CARMA). Note: Wild boreal forest reindeer have not been mapped by CARMA and thus are not represented here. Currently wild reindeer and caribou have declined by about 33% since populations (herds) peaked in the 1990s and early 2000s (3.8 million compared to 5.6 million) which followed ...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Invasive species response to climate change - Hydrilla spp, current and 2080 habitat suitability Invasive species response to climate change - Hydrilla spp, current and 2080 habitat suitability
As climate change alters Arctic ecosystems and enables greater human activity, biological invasions are likely to increase in the Arctic. To some extent, Arctic terrestrial ecosystems may be predisposed to invasion because many invasive plants are adapted to open disturbed areas. Range map scenarios developed for 16 highly invasive plants either occurring in or at risk of invading Alaska also paint a sobering outlook for the future. This map dep...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution and current trend of polar bear subpopulations throughout the circumpolar Arctic Distribution and current trend of polar bear subpopulations throughout the circumpolar Arctic
Polar bears occur in 19 relatively discrete subpopulations with an estimated worldwide abundance of 20,000– 25,000 animals. Our knowledge of the status and trend of each subpopulation varies due to availability, reliability, and age of data. Furthermore, for many subpopulations, there is limited or no data collected over a sufficient period of time to examine trends. Based on a 2009 review of the worldwide status of polar bears, one of 19 subpopu...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sturgeons distribution in the Black Sea Sturgeons distribution in the Black Sea
Illustration in a set of graphics prepared for a pilot assessment report on the Black Sea drainage basin, for the UNEP Global Impact on Waters Assessment (GIWA). All data and information were prepared in close collaboration with the GIWA Black Sea team and the GIWA secretariat. The graphics were never not used in this form in the final report on the Black Sea, published in 2005.
07 Nov 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of polar bear populations in the Arctic Distribution of polar bear populations in the Arctic
Worldwide there are thought to be 22,000-27,000 polar bears (Ursus maritimus)in 20 separate populations. They can be found in the United States, Canada, Russia, Greenland and on the Arctic islands of Norway.
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity
Similar to corals, the region of greatest mangrove diversity is in Southeast Asia, particularly around the Indonesian Archipelago (Burke et al., 2001). There are three distinct areas of seagrass diversity in the Pacific region: the Indo-Pacific (areas around Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea), the seas around Japan, and southwest Australia (Spalding et al., 2002). This graphic illustrates the distribution and biodiversity (low, medium and...
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Turbot distribution in the Black Sea Turbot distribution in the Black Sea
Illustration in a set of graphics prepared for a pilot assessment report on the Black Sea drainage basin, for the UNEP Global Impact on Waters Assessment (GIWA). All data and information were prepared in close collaboration with the GIWA Black Sea team and the GIWA secretariat. The graphics were never not used in this form in the final report on the Black Sea, published in 2005.
07 Nov 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic
The common eider, Somateria mollissima, has a circumpolar distribution breeding mainly on small islands in Arctic and boreal marine areas in Alaska (Bering Sea region), Canada, Greenland, Iceland, western Europe, and the Barents Sea region. In Russia, there is a gap in distribution along the mainland coast from the Yugorski Peninsula (Kara Sea) to Chaunskaya Bay in east Siberia (Figure 5.1). Important wintering areas include the Gulf of Alaska/Be...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coral Reefs Coral Reefs
Distribution of the world's coral reefs. Oceans blue carbon sinks, along with coral reefs and kelp communities, all fulfil very important functions in the coastal zone while providing opportunities for jobs and coastal prosperity.
21 May 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species) Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species)
The comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their numbers, upsetting the entire food chain. The jelly is an invasive species, brought from North America by ships.
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic char species complex, distribution map Arctic char species complex, distribution map
The Arctic char species complex, sensu stricto, represent a key component of the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the north. Chars are stressed by factors such as fisheries, climate change and pollutants. We are possibly altering char biodiversity without documenting it and understanding its relevance. Concerted pan-Arctic biodiversity assessments, sustained research, and coordinated monitoring of chars are required to outline the scope of div...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coldwater coral reefs, distribution Coldwater coral reefs, distribution
Scientists are just beginning to learn about the many species in the remote, deep waters of the polar oceans. Corals, for example, are not limited to the warm, shallow waters of the tropics. They also exist in many cold, deep waters all over the world, including Arctic and sub-Antarctic waters. Coral reefs are marine ridges or mounds, which have formed over millennia as a result of the deposition of calcium carbonate by living organisms, predomin...
21 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of lodgepole pine in Sweden Distribution of lodgepole pine in Sweden
Forest distribution in Scandinavia is affected by several different species. This is to demonstrate the concentration of lodgepole pine (pinus contorta) in Sweden. The lodgepole pine is a tall, slender tree with a narrow loose crown reaching up to 80 feet tall.
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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How the comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading through European seas (invasive species) How the comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is spreading through European seas (invasive species)
The most threatening event for the Caspian ecosystem was the arrival of the North American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi). It was brought accidentally to the Caspian in the ballast water of oil tankers. Invasive and alien species can exploit ecological niches that are not currently occupied, and spread rapidly, out-competing indigenous species.
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests) World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests)
Approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on forests for their livelihoods. Forest and its products provide cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor families. Forestry provides formal and informal employment for an estimated 40-60 million people. The sector contributes in some developing countries more than eight per cent to GDP. Timber may be the most important forest produc...
06 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Orangutan distribution on Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia) Orangutan distribution on Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia)
The distribution of Orangutan on Borneo is rapidly decreasing, as mankind is reducing the available habitat for the apes. The loss of forest, through logging, clearing and burning, means reduced opportunities for hiding and food collection. In addition, orangutans are hunted for food and to be held in captivity.
21 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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L’indice UV a l’echelle mondiale L’indice UV a l’echelle mondiale
« L’indice UV mondial (IUV) est une mesure simple du niveau de rayonnement UV à la surface de la Terre. Il a été mis au point de façon à indiquer les effets négatifs potentiels sur la santé et pour inciter les gens à se protéger. Plus l’indice est élevé, plus le danger d’atteintes à la santé et aux yeux est important, et plus le temps d’exposition suffisant pour représenter un danger est bref.
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Processus chimique de dégradation de l’ozone dans la stratosphère Processus chimique de dégradation de l’ozone dans la stratosphère
L’ozone stratosphérique, l’ozone troposphérique et le « trou » de la couche d’ozone.
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Le protoxyde d’azote : un coupable de premier rang après 2010. D’origine agricole pour l’essentiel Le protoxyde d’azote : un coupable de premier rang après 2010. D’origine agricole pour l’essentiel
« Nous avons calculé que le potentiel d’appauvrissement de l’ozone représenté par le N2O serait 50% plus élevé si le taux de chlore baissait à son niveau de l’année 1960. » Pour comprendre comment, selon Ravishankara, il est utile de savoir comment les CFC et le N2O attaquent l’ozone. Les rayons ultraviolets d’origine solaire scindent les molécules de CFC, ce qui aboutit à l’émission de chlore et d’oxydes de chlore. « Voilà ce qui détruit l’ozon...
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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