Graphics Library >> Recent

Recent

Number of Tree Species per Country in the World
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) estimates that the accelerating rate of deforestation which has taken place over the last century has contributed to reducing the abundance of forest species by more than...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Area of Biomes Protected
Rising temperatures force many living organisms to migrate to cooler areas, while new organisms arrive. Such movements involve all species, including plants. Some species will seek higher altitudes, others will mov...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forest and Biodiversity under Threat by Economic Development
Southeast Asia, containing the world’s third largest tropical forests, is experiencing deforestation rates higher than almost anywhere else on Earth. The region’s forests and animals living in the forest are endang...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Worst Case Scenario for the Amazon Forest
2050. Global climate change has already contributed to rising temperatures in the Amazon which, when combined with deforestation, have led to a cycle of lower precipitation and a greater frequency of droughts. Resea...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Global Forest Fragmentation
Forest fragmentation can jeopardize the long-term health and vitality of the forest ecosystem. Forest fragmentation can also result in species loss as the size of a forest becomes too small to support a viable popul...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Trends in Net Trade of Forest Products
The international trade in forest products has undergone considerable changes, due to emerging markets, new investment strategies and diversification in products. In 2004, trade in wood-based forest products accou...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Wildlife Smuggling to in and from Nepal
Animals living in the forest are also at risk from poaching and bush-meat hunting. Intelligence gathering, regular mo - n itoring and strict enforcement are effective ways of curtailing both illegal logging and poac...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forest Cover in Relation to Poverty Madagascar
Even though forests are often very important to households, there is surprisingly little knowledge on the actual level of household forest income and the role of such income in maintaining livelihoods. The evidence ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Future Expansion of Palm Oil in Indonesia
Conversion to agriculture, including the recent expansion in the area devoted to oil palm plantations, continues to be the main cause of forest loss in Southeast Asia.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
The World is Losing 20000 ha of Forest a Day
835 ha of forest disappear every hour, the equivalent of 1140 football pitches.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Production Imports and Exports of Selected Forest Products
The largest importers of forestry products in general remain the developed countries, led by the United States, Japan and the Euro pean Union. The Russian Federation has recently emerged as the larg est exporter of ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forest per Total Land Area
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) there are at present just under 4 billion hectares of forest in the world, covering in all about 30 per cent of the world’s land area (FAO 2...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forest Carbon Stock per Region
Carbon stocks in land based ecosystems are distributed irregularly between tropical and northern latitudes but are mostly concentrated in forest ecosystems and wetlands. Recent research suggests tropical forests pla...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Annual Net Change in Forest Area
The net change in forest area (loss and gain) describes the sum of all changes in forest area over a specific period of time (including reductions due to deforestation and disasters, and increases due to afforestati...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Historical Forest Carbon Balance 1855-1995
Through processes of respiration and through the decay of organic matter or burning of biomass, forests release carbon. A carbon ‘sink’ is formed in the forest when the uptake of carbon is higher than the release. The co...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Global Biofuel Production
Demand for land for production of biomass for energy is putting increasing pressure on forests. Energy security concerns, high oil prices and climate mitigation policies aimed at replacing fossil fuels with renewabl...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Change Forest Cover Costa Rica
Decreases and increases in forest area, 1940-2005. Costa rica has recently recorded a change from having a net loss of forests to having a net gain in forest area.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forest Conservation and Wood Production
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
The Routes of African Ivory and Rhino Horns to Asia
In Central Africa, species under threat from poaching include elephants and rhinos. Rhinoceros horn is used in traditional Asian medicine, believed to reduce fevers and even prevent loss of life. Other parts of the ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Solid Biomass Consumption Including Woodfuel
Fuelwood and charcoal from forests have long provided energy for heating, cooking and industry. Almost 90 per cent of the wood harvested in Africa, and 40 per cent in Asia and the Pacific, is used for fuel (FAO 2006...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Trends in Area of Productive Forest Plantations
In 2005, 2.8 per cent of total global forest cover was made up of productive forest plantations, amounting to an area of approximately 110 million hectares (FAO 2006a). According to the FAO, there was an increase of...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Average Annual Rate of Change
Changes in area covered by forest, 1990-2005.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forests Regulate Groundwater Level
Forests can regulate groundwater levels and increase drainage of soils where the water table is close to the surface. If there are salts in the upper soil layers, then removal of forests can result in raised groundw...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
What is Becoming of the Amazon Forest?
The Amazon is now part of a national and international economy which, through globalization, is responding to market demands, accelerating the rate at which agricultural crops and cattle ranching are replacing or i...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Tea Production Areas and Forest Distribution in Kenya
The micro-climate associated with forest areas is often a critical factor in growing cash crops. In East Africa, tea is grown in areas adjacent to montane forests where conditions for tea production are optimal due ...
14 Sep 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forests Affected as Hideouts and Refuges
Around the world, conflicts and wars are, directly and indirectly, taking a toll on forests and the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests in remote areas provide safe haven for refugees ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Carbon Stocks Trends and Projections Compared to 1860
Carbon stocks in forest areas comprise carbon in living and dead organic matter both above and below ground including trees, the understorey, dead wood, litter and soil. According to the latest projections, changes ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Major Producers of Palm Oil and Beef
Indonesia and Malaysia are major producers of palm oil: in 2006 these two countries accounted for 85 per cent of total world production and 88 per cent of global exports (FAO 2008). Over the past decade, the area cov...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
The World is Losing its Mangroves
Mangrove forests occur naturally in intertidal zones along sheltered shorelines and in deltas in tropical regions. They are vital breeding grounds for fish and shrimp and also provide a buffer against coastal hazard...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Growth of Cattle Breeding in Amazonia
In Latin America, cattle ranches are expanding rapidly (FAO 2007a) and, according to one study, accounted for an estimated 70 per cent of deforestation in Brazil in 2007 (Malhi et al. 2008). In the Brazilian Amazon...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Amazonian Deforestation in the Global Context
Growing global demand for land for the production of agricultural commodities has resulted in sometimes irreversible changes to the world’s forest cover. The Amazon is now part of a national and international economy ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forests and Conflicts
Around the world, conflicts and wars are taking a toll on forests and on the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be as a vital source...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forest Cover and Definition
Forest cover varies depending on how it is defined. The crown cover threshold and the land use criterion are, in most cases, the most critical factors defining forests.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Deforestation in Brazil Compared with the Area of Turkey
Over the past 40 years, about a fifth of Brazil’s Amazon rainforest has been deforested (Reuters 2008). Official statistics show that annual deforestation has been close to 20 000 square kilometres over the last 10 ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Estimated Loss of Plant Species 2000-2005
The present environmental situation – heavily influenced by climate change – could lead to a massive destruction of forests and the extinction of countless species. For example, modelling focusing on the Amazon regi...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Changing Global Forest Cover
Forests can undergo changes in various ways. Forest areas can be reduced either by deforestation or by natural disasters, which can result in the forest being unable to naturally regenerate. Conversely, forest ar...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Ten Countries with the Largest Area of Productive Forest Plantations
The ten countries with the largest forest plan tation area are supplying just under half of global demand for industrial round wood. The development of forest plan tations, however, poses problems when they replace...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Wood Products Rise
The nature of forest product exports has changed in recent years, with exports of primary products – logsand sawnwood – being overtaken by secondary processed wood products, such as furniture and prefabricated wooden...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Breakdown of Carbon Storage by Region
Forests absorb carbon through photosynthesis and sequester it as biomass, thus creating a natural storage of carbon. Carbon stocks in forest areas comprise carbon in living and dead organic matter both above and bel...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
The main Biomes of the World
Defining what constitutes a forest is not easy. Forest types differ widely, determined by factors including latitude, temperature, rainfall patterns, soil composition and human activity.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forests in Narcotics and Arms Trafficking Areas
Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be as a vital source of revenue for warring parties to sustain conflict. Known cases of forests as sites of rebel camps include Colombia where left-wi...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Major Producers of Soya Beans and Sugar Cane
Some of the most serious deforestation occurs when there are various commodity booms at the domestic and international levels. At such times farmers and large agribusiness enterprises clear forest areas to plant mo...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Landfilling and incinerating still leading in Europe
As the garbage pile gets higher and the environmental conscience sharpens, it is now recognized that producing waste at this rate is no longer acceptable. Now is the time for “integrated waste management” and its motto –...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mobile phones per 1000 people
The Basel Convention has before it an amendment which would ban the export of hazardous waste for disposal to developing countries. Some countries (for example those in the European Union) have already implemented this p...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total waste generation in 2001, selected countries
On a global scale, calculating the amount of waste being generated presents a problem. There are a number of issues, including a lack of reporting by many countries and inconsistencies in the way countries report (defini...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
162 Parties to the Basel Convention in October 2004
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal is the most comprehensive global environmental agreement on hazardous and other wastes. It aims to protect human healt...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Different approaches and overlapping definitions to waste
Waste is generated in all sorts of ways. Its composition and volume largely depend on consumption patterns and the industrial and economic structures in place. Air quality, water and soil contamination, space consumption...
14 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human Development Index (HDI) in 2002
Human development is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with thei...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gold production of the Ok Tedi mine
The Ok Tedi mine is located high in the rain forest covered Star Mountains of Papua New Guinea. Prior to 1981 the local Wopkaimin people lived a subsistence existence in one of the most isolated places on earth. That was...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Raw material consumption in United States and Western Europe (Steel, aluminium, plastics and cement)
The global consumption of key raw materials is rising fast. Over the 20-year period ending in 1994, the world population increased by 40% – in that same period, the world consumption of cement increased by 77%, and plast...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of personal computers
It is estimated that there are over a billion personal computers in the world at present. In developed countries these have an average life span of only 2 years. In the United States alone there are over 300 million obso...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mining effects on rainfall drainage
The Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is the number one environmental problem facing the mining industry. AMD occurs when sulphide-bearing minerals in rock are exposed to air and water, changing the sulphide to sulphuric acid. I...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Raw material consumption, global trends and US share
A small minority of rich countries are responsible for a large part of the raw material consumption. All together the developed countries comprise only 22% of the world population, but they consume more than 60% of the i...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Waste and car production
The life cycle approach gives a more complete picture of the waste and energy associated with a product. Our daily choices determine the amount of waste we produce. As consumers, our relationship to a product happens onl...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Information and communication technology expenditures
The high tech boom has brought with it a new type of waste – electronic waste, a category that barely existed 20 years ago. Now e-waste represents the biggest and fastest growing manufacturing waste. The black and white ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Waste generation scheme
The graphic gives a general illustration of a waste generation & management scheme. Using car production as a example, the associated text includes references as follows: Raw Materials: Mining of minerals: copper, iron, ...
14 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected trends in regional municipal waste generation
Municipal waste is everything collected and treated by municipalities. Only part of it is comes from households, the rest is generated by small businesses, commercial and other municipal activities. So it is produced fro...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Packaging production and recycling: selected European countries
Recycling activities are economically important. Collection, sorting and reprocessing represent job opportunities (especially in the paper recycling sector). They also lower energy and municipal waste disposal costs. ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual world nuclear reactor construction / Spent fuel generation
Both the volume and the level of radioactivity have to be considered – a large volume of waste with a low-level of radioactivity presents less danger than a smaller amount of waste with a high-level of radioactivity. Fo...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ability of countries to support their citizens from their own environment
The Ecological Footprint measures the amount of productive land area needed to support a nation’s consumption and waste. This indicator shows that in many countries, as well as for the planet as a whole, the demand for n...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Personal computers per 1000 people
It is estimated that there are over a billion personal computers in the world at present. In developed countries these have an average life span of only 2 years. In the United States alone there are over 300 million obso...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in transboundary movement of waste among Parties to the Basel Convention
The amount of waste on the move is increasing rapidly. Reports to the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal suggest that between 1993 and 2001 the amount of was...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Raw materials consumption in the United States
The United States consumption of key raw materials is rising fast. Since 1950 some raw material consumption has increase by over 200 percent. Raw materials used for construction has risen over 400 percent in the same tim...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Percentage of the population served by municipal waste services
Waste collection is a basic public service performed for everyone in OECD countries. Everyone? Well, a closer look reveals that this is not the case for a significant number of people. If these developed countries can’t ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Consumption of selected industrial raw materials compared to global population
Five of the top countries consuming industrial raw materials account for roughly 10 percent of the world's population but consume up to 50 percent of more of some of the main materials. This shows a large imbalance betwe...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Municipal solid waste composition: for 7 OECD countries and 7 Asian cities
In most countries in the world, organic materials and paper are the main contributors to municipal waste. In developing countries, large cities generate most of the municipal waste. Data are rarely available for rural ar...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total hazardous and other waste generation as reported by the Parties to the Basel Convention in 2001 (bar chart)
The Basel Convention has estimated the amount of hazardous and other waste generated for 2000 and 2001 at 318 and 338 millions tonnes respectively. However these figures are based on reports from only a third of the coun...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ok Tedi mine
The Ok Tedi mine is located high in the rain forest covered Star Mountains of Papua New Guinea. Prior to 1981 the local Wopkaimin people lived a subsistence existence in one of the most isolated places on earth. That was...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Export waste as reported by Australia, in tonnes, 2001
Australia is not a big player in the waste trade, but a good percentage of its exports are shipped all the way to Europe. In 2000 Australia reported the export of 16 689 tonnes of waste (all classifi ed as hazardous) to ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ship owners and builders
When ships like oil tankers and cargo vessels pass their use by date they are broken up for scrap. Large ships are generally built by companies in countries like Japan, South Korea and Germany, but when it comes time for...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions due to solid waste disposal on land
Landfi ling is the most common waste management practice, and results in the release of methane from the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Methane is around 20 times more potent as a GHG than carbon dioxide. ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Existing radioactive waste disposal and proposal alternatives for storage
Radioactive waste presents a unique problem, where it has to be handled with care to prevent radiation exposure for people, wildlife and contamination. Products from nuclear activities can be reprocessed to a certain deg...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ore production and waste generation at Ok Tedi Mine
The Ok Tedi mine is located high in the rain forest covered Star Mountains of Papua New Guinea. Prior to 1981 the local Wopkaimin people lived a subsistence existence in one of the most isolated places on earth. That was...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Solid waste management cost for selected cities
Sound waste management requires a high level of technology and a signif cant budget. What Japan and Germany can afford today, most countries will have to wait a long time for. Developed countries have a lot to learn fro...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Shipbreaking in Asia
Prior to 1970, shipbeaking was concentrated in Europe. It was a highly mechanised activity carried out at docks by skilled workers. However the increasing cost of upholding environmental health and safety guidelines made...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Municipal solid waste generation for selected large cities in Asia
Municipal waste is everything collected and treated by municipalities. Only part of it is comes from households, the rest is generated by small businesses, commercial and other municipal activities. So it is produced fro...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
What is in a Swiss rubbish bag? (household waste)
The amount and composition of municipal waste depends on a variety of factors. It is related to our living standard but wealth does not explain everything. It is also correlated with levels of urbanization, energy choice...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Waste generation from manufacturing
Manufacturing waste, as you would expect from the vast range of products produced and processes involved, is a very diverse group. The waste generated depends on the technology used, the nature of the raw material proce...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agriculture and manufacturing waste generation
Agricultural waste consists of things like pesticide waste, discarded pesticide containers, plastics such as silage wrap, bags and sheets, packaging waste, old machinery, oil and waste veterinary medicines. In a comparis...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hazardous waste generation in 2001 as reported by the Parties to the Basel Convention
Hazardous waste needs to be monitored and controlled from the moment the waste is generated until its ultimate disposal. Proper hazardous waste control requires a plan to reduce the amount of waste generated or the toxic...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Export of waste as reported by Germany, in tonnes, 2001
In 2000 Germany reported sending more than threehundred thousand tonnes of waste to 14 countries. All countries appeared to receive a broad combination of hazardous waste apart from China, which received nearly 50 tonnes...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
What is in a computer
On average a computer is 23% plastic, 32% ferrous metals, 18% non-ferrous metals (lead, cadmium, antimony, beryllium, chromium and mercury), 12% electronic boards (gold, palladium, silver and platinum) and 15% glass. On...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hazardous waste in Georgia
Economic conditions have led to the almost complete closure of old Soviet era industrial complexes. Neither the Rustavi and Zestafoni chemical and metallurgy plants or the Chiatura and Tkibuli mines still function. Howev...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Import of waste as reported by Australia, in tonnes, 2001
In 2000 Australia imported 1600 tonnes of waste from New Zealand, Norway, French Antarctic and South Africa. This included mostly copper and lead compounds from New Zealand, selenium from Norway and household waste from...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia
The Soviet development model for Central Asia was based on building large-scale irrigation schemes enabling the region to become a major cotton producer and expanding the mining and processing industry. Industrial operat...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hong Kong municipal waste composition
As 1.3 billion Chinese thunder into the great pleasures of consumption, municipal waste is certainly a major environmental concern. This graph shows the amount of waste from 1991 to 2003 in Hong Kong.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Waste generation from manufacturing industry (by sectors)
Turning raw materials into consumer products generates waste - depending on the technology used, the nature of the raw material processed and how much of it is discarded at the end of the chain. Very often manufacturing ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Transboundary movements of waste in 2000
Waste, including extremely hazardous waste like radioactive material, toxic heavy metals and poisonous PCBs are routinely being loaded into trucks, and transported across continents. Some is loaded onto ships and export...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
How long does it take for some commonly used products to biodegrade?
Pollution emitted in industrial areas represents a threat to human health and the surrounding natural resources. We have a tendency to believe that the production processes are the only source of environmental damage, an...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global hazardous waste generation by type as reported by the parties to the Basel Convention for the years 1993-2000
Hazardous wastes can often be recycled in an environmentally sound manner. Wastes that cannot be recycled must be treated to reduce the toxicity and the ability of the constituents to move throughout the environment. Tr...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Recycling rates for selected OECD countries
The priority now is to decrease the amount of waste we generate. That means changing our consumption patterns, for example by choosing products that use recyclable material, market fresh produce instead of canned food, l...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Contribution of various waste management systems to greenhouse gas emissions, 2002
The disposal and treatment of waste can produce emissions of several greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. The most significant GHG gas produced from waste is methane. It is released during ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Contribution from waste to climate change
The disposal and treatment of waste can produce emissions of several greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. The most significant GHG gas produced from waste is methane. It is released during ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Import waste as reported by Germany, in tonnes, 2001
In 2000 Germany reported sending 317 528 tonnes of waste to 14 countries. All countries appeared to receive a broad combination of hazardous waste apart from China, which received nearly 50 tonnes of household waste. Dur...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mercury pollution - transport and cycle
Mines use toxic chemicals including cyanide, mercury, and sulphuric acid, to separate metal from ore. The chemicals used in the processing are generally recycled, however residues may remain in the tailings, which in dev...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Different sources of danger and their impacts to the environment
Contaminated groundwater can adversely affect animals, plants and humans if it is removed from the ground by manmade or natural processes. Depending on the geology of the area, groundwater may rise to the surface through...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Composition of transboundary waste
According to the Basel Convention reports, of more than 300 million tonnes of waste (including hazardous and other waste) generated worldwide in 2000, a little less that 2% was exported. However 90% of the exported waste...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The richer we get, the more we discard - human consumption, waste and living standards
According to various scenarios, the economic development (presented in this graphic as Gross Domestic Product, GDP) will most likely continue for the next decades – but at a slower pace for those countries that can affor...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal