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Ocean carbon cycle Ocean carbon cycle
Without the contribution of oceans and coastal ecosystems to global biological carbon sequestration today’s CO2 concentration in the atmosphere would be much larger than it is. But the uptake capacity of oceans and coasts is both finite and vulnerable. Minimisation of pressures, restoration and sustainable use are management options that can help these ecosystems maintain their important carbon management function.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tundra Tundra
Tundra ecosystems are dense in carbon. They have little potential to gain more carbon but a huge amount could be lost if the permafrost were to thaw. Prevention of climate change is currently the only failsafe method of minimising this loss.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon stored by biome Carbon stored by biome
Dividing the world into seven biomes, we estimate that tropical and subtropical forests store the largest amount of carbon, almost 550 Gt.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperate Forests Temperate Forests
Temperate forests are active carbon sinks and deforestation in the temperate zone has largely stopped. Where demand for land and/or water allows, reforestation would enable carbon sequestration and could provide other benefits including higher biodiversity and recreation opportunities.
13 Sep 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Plantation forestry Plantation forestry
Timber forestry can be adapted to increase the amount of carbon held in plantations.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Desert and dry shrublands Desert and dry shrublands
The large surface area of drylands gives dryland carbon sequestration a global significance, despite their relatively low carbon density. The fact that many dryland soils have been degraded means that they are currently far from saturated with carbon and their potential to sequester carbon can be high.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Savannas and tropical grasslands Savannas and tropical grasslands
Savannas cover large areas of Africa and South America and can store significant amounts of carbon, especially in their soils. Activities such as cropping, heavy grazing and increased frequency or intensity of fires can reduce carbon stored in these systems.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World soil demand World soil demand
Human needs and ecosystem conservation
01 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon cycle Carbon cycle
Living systems play a vital role in the carbon cycle. Photosynthesising organisms – mostly plants on land and various kinds of algae and bacteria in the sea – use either atmospheric carbon dioxide or that dissolved in sea water as the basis for the complex organic carbon compounds that are essential for life.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest, crops and the people Forest, crops and the people
There are competing demands for land use. Any policy that aims to promote ecosystem carbon management must resolve conflicts between different land uses and take care not to disadvantage the poor.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical agriculture Tropical agriculture
There is great potential to restore carbon in tropical agricultural soils through management practices that, in the right circumstances, can also increase productivity. Agroforestry can offer particularly large carbon gains, although it can increase water demand. Agricultural carbon sequestration policies will need to be tailored to particular circumstances to allow farmers to benefit.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The vicious cycle of depletion The vicious cycle of depletion
Agricultural systems in the temperate zone tend to occupy fertile soils that would have formerly supported temperate grassland or forest. Land clearance for croplands and pasture has greatly reduced above ground carbon stocks from their original state and soil carbon stocks are also often depleted as tillage disrupts the soil, opening it to decomposer organisms and generating aerobic conditions that stimulate respiration and release of carb...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical forests Tropical forests
Tropical forests hold the largest terrestrial carbon store and are active carbon sinks. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation is a vital component of tackling dangerous climate change. In addition, tackling illegal and ill-managed logging will be an important part of reducing emissions from forestry.
06 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Simulated Future Temperature Trends Simulated Future Temperature Trends
Weather patterns are altered.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual Temperatures Increases for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980 Annual Temperatures Increases for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980
Average surface temperature anomaly (oC)
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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East Siberian Arctic Shelf East Siberian Arctic Shelf
The degradation of arctic sub-sea permafrost is already releasing methane from the massive, frozen, undersea carbon pool and more is expected with further warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N) Area with near-surface permafrost (North of 45°N)
Simulated a) permafrost area and active layer thickness (a) 1980- 1999 and (b) 2080-2099. (c) Observational estimates of permafrost (continuous, discontinuous, sporadic, and isolated). (d) Time series of simulated global permafrost area (excluding glacial Greenland and Antarctica).
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Depht-corrected density of Labrador Sea water (northern North Atlantic) at 200-800 m depth Depht-corrected density of Labrador Sea water (northern North Atlantic) at 200-800 m depth
The global ocean circulation system will change under the strong influence of arctic warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctic References Antarctic References
Images of Antarctica (left) and Greenland (right) to scale. Antarctica is 50 per cent larger than the United States or Europe. Greenland is 7 times smaller than Antarctica. There is enough ice in Antarctica to raise global sea level by 60 metres and 7 metres in Greenland.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Temperature anomalies of the intermediate Atlantic Water in Arctic Ocean Temperature anomalies of the intermediate Atlantic Water in Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean connections are changing
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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