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Areas of physical and economic water scarcity Areas of physical and economic water scarcity
Under current water use practices, increases in population and changes in diet are projected to increase water consumption in food and fiber production by 70-90%. If demands for biomass energy increase, this may aggravate the problem. In addition, sectoral competition for water resources will intensify, further exacerbating the stress on developing country producers.
03 Jan 2008 - by Unknown
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Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000 Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000
During a 20 year period between 1981 to 2000 the amount of agricultural research by developing nations has outgrown those of higher income countries. The increase has been steady throughout the entire period as it is in the Asia Pacific region.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land area: Conventional and genetically modified crops Land area: Conventional and genetically modified crops
While many regions are actively experimenting with GMOs at a small scale, the highly concentrated cultivation of GM crops in a few countries (nearly three-fourths in only the US and Argentina, with 90% in the four countries including Brazil and Canada) is also interpreted as an indication of a modest uptake rate. GM crop cultivation may have increased by double digit rates for the past 10 years, but over 93% of cultivated land still supports conv...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected impact of climate change Projected impact of climate change
Future climate change and projected impacts: Increased growth and yield rates due to higher levels of carbon dioxide and temperatures could result in longer growing seasons. For example, in mid to high latitude regions, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report moderate local increases in temperature (1-2ºC) can have small beneficial impacts on crop yields.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in real commodity prices Trends in real commodity prices
Agriculture is a fundamental instrument for sustainable development; about 70% of the world’s poor are rural and most are involved in farming. National policy needs to arrive at a balance between a higher prices which can benefit producers and lead to a more vibrant rural economy, and lower prices, which, although volatile on the international market, can improve food access for poor consumers.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Market concentration Market concentration
Agricultural trade is increasingly organized in global chains, dominated by a few large transnational buyers (trading companies, agrifood processors and companies involved in production of commodities). In these globalized chains primary producers often capture only a fraction of the international price of a trade commodity, so the poverty reduction and rural development effects of integration in global supply chains have been far less than optim...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop
Ensuring policy space for all these countries to maintain prices for crops that are important to food security and rural livelihoods is essential. Agricultural policies in industrialized countries, including export subsidies, have reduced commodity prices and thus food import costs; however this has undermined the development of the agricultural sector in developing countries, and thus agriculture’s significant potential growth multiplier for the...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land use Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land use
Changes in land use have negatively affected the net ability of ecosystems to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. For instance, the carbon rich grasslands and forests in temperate zones have been replaced by crops with much lower capacity to sequester carbon.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006 Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006
Some regions report increases in some crops and positive financial returns have been reported for genetically modified cotton in studies including South Africa, Argentina, China, India and Mexico. In contrast, the US and Argentina may have slight yield declines in soybeans, and also for maize in the US. Studies on GMOs have also shown the potential for decreased insecticide use, while others show increasing herbicide use.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Developing countries: share of agricultural exports in the world market (Hong Kong scenario) Developing countries: share of agricultural exports in the world market (Hong Kong scenario)
Agricultural trade can offer opportunities for the poor, but there are major distributional impacts among countries and within countries that in many cases have not been favorable for small-scale farmers and rural livelihoods. The poorest developing countries are net losers under most trade liberalization scenarios. 99
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Top 10 global food retailers Top 10 global food retailers
Agricultural commodities the world have seen a decline in prices accompanied by wide fluctuations over the past decades. IAASTD projections of the global food system indicate a tightening of world food markets, with increasing market concentration in a few hands and rapid growth of global retail chains in all developing countries, natural and physical resource scarcity, and adverse implications for food security.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Unemployment in the Caucasus ecoregion Unemployment in the Caucasus ecoregion
High unemployment is one of the driving forces behind the degradation of ecosystems in the region. Upon the break-up of the Soviet Union the situation worsened as the economy was restructured. After almost two decades the situation has improved - a number of industries successfully restarted their operations and small businesses boomed up in cities and countryside. However, the unemployment rate, especially in some provinces in Russia, Georgia an...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Pasture land in the Caucausus ecoregion Pasture land in the Caucausus ecoregion
Overgrazing and uncontrolled livestock grazing threatens steppe, subalpine and alpine ecosystems. A third of pasturelands in the region are subject to erosion. Sheep grazing in the winter ranges and the steppes and semi-deserts of the eastern Caucasus has nearly tripled in the past decade. Intensive grazing has resulted in reduced species diversity and habitat degradation. Secondary plant communities now occupy 80 percent of grasslands in the sub...
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
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Forests in the Caucasus ecoregion Forests in the Caucasus ecoregion
About 17% of the total land area of the Caucasus is covered by forests, primarily found between altitudes of 500-2000m and growing on steep slopes. Most forests are broadleaf forests but a number of different types are found, including birch forests, oak forests, fir forests, alder forests and wing nuts forests. In Georgia the total area covered by forests is 40% while forest areas in the Northern Caucasus amount to 11.4%, in Azerbaijan to 14-15%...
01 Nov 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
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Protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors in the Caucausus Protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors in the Caucausus
This map shows protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors identified in 'Eco-regional Conservation Plan for the Caucasus'. Priority conservation areas were agreed where there is important concentration of plants, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fishes. Delineation of corridors were agreed where large mammals, birds, fish, and other animals need corridors for migration, dispersal and to maintain their population. ...
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus
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Demography of the Caucausus ecoregion, rural and urban population Demography of the Caucausus ecoregion, rural and urban population
The Caucasus ecoregion, which includes the countries of Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran, has three main urban centres - Yerevan, Tbilisi and Baku. Rural population is primarily distributed on the plains and coasts.
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Poverty levels in the Caucasus ecoregion Poverty levels in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion, with the countries Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran represents a region in transition. Poverty is a key factor in human and economic development. The highest levels are in the parts of the Russian Federation present in the region, as well as in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia. The value for Turkey and Iran are for the whole of the countries, and the values may not be representative for the ...
06 Nov 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus region is important in terms of heavy industry. Being rich with natural mineral resources, extraction industry is playing an important role in the overall economic development. However, concerns related to unsustainable mining practices increasingly worries the public. Within the Southern Caucasus, Armenia displays the greatest number of mine sites and identified mineral deposits. Within Armenia, the mining industry is concentrated i...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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