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Monsanto Corporation's global vegetable seed market share Monsanto Corporation's global vegetable seed market share
Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food sovereignty is defined as the right of peoples and sovereign states to democratically determine their own agricultural and food policies.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biotechnology and modern biotechnology defined Biotechnology and modern biotechnology defined
Modern biotechnology is a term adopted by international convention to refer to biotechnological techniques for the manipulation of genetic material and the fusion of cells beyond normal breeding barriers. The most obvious example is genetic engineering to create genetically modified/engineered organisms (GMOs/GEOs) through “transgenic technology” involving the insertion or deletion of genes.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total agricultural output Total agricultural output
Substantial gains in agricultural productivity over the past 50 years have reduced rates of hunger and malnutrition, improved the health and livelihoods of many millions of people and stimulated economic growth in numerous countries. World cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 with average yields per hectare increasing around 150% in many high and low income countries, with the exception of most nations in sub-Saharan Africa.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Are
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Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture
There is a need to develop agricultural policies that both reduce emissions and allow adaptation to climate change that are closer to carbon-neutral, minimize trace gas emissions and reduce natural capital degradation. Important questions include how emissions from agriculture and forestry can be effectively reduced, how to produce food with greater input efficiency, and less GHG emissions, how can agriculture, agroforestry and forestry best adap...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changes in available water in Africa: end of 20th and 21st centuries Changes in available water in Africa: end of 20th and 21st centuries
Salinization affects about 10% of the world’s irrigated land, while the loss of biodiversity and its associated agroecological functions (estimated to provide economic benefits of US$ 1,542 billion per year) adversely affect productivity especially in environmentally sensitive lands in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agricultural labor as share of total labor Agricultural labor as share of total labor
As the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increases the percentage of agricultural labour as the entire labour of a country. East Africa has the highest levels of agricultural labour as Japan and the U.S.A. have the lowest levels of agricultural labour.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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From biomass to energy consumption From biomass to energy consumption
As biomass feedstocks are widely available, bioenergy offers an attractive complement to fossil fuels and thus has potential to alleviate concerns of a geopolitical and energy security nature. However, only a small part of globally available biomass can be exploited in an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable way.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Price change of selected retail foodstuffs and the percentage of retail value paid to primary Price change of selected retail foodstuffs and the percentage of retail value paid to primary
The elimination or the substantial reduction of subsidies and protectionism in industrialized countries, especially for commodities in which developing countries compete such as sugar, groundnuts and cotton is important for small-scale farm sectors around the world. Similarly, plurilateral commitments from major exporting countries to ensure that there is no trade at prices below the full cost of production have been put forward as an option to d...
03 Jan 2008 - by Ketill Berger
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Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural) Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural)
Gender equity is an important part of social equity. Women and men, who often have different roles and responsibilities in households and food production, often have different relationships to the various benefits derived from Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and innovations.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arenda
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World's top seed companies World's top seed companies
The top ten seed companies have incomes at over $10 billion USD. Monsanto and Dupont/Pioneer lead the way with over 50% of seed sales in the world. All of the top ten companies are located in the U.S.A, Japan or Europe.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Counting women’s labor Counting women’s labor
Besides housekeeping and child rearing, women and girls are usually responsible for fetching water and fuel wood. Women and girls tend to perform tasks such as planting, transplanting, hand weeding, harvesting, picking fruit and vegetables, small livestock rearing, and post-harvest operations such as threshing, seed selection, and storage, while mechanized work (preparing the land, irrigation, mechanical harvesting, and marketing) is generally a ...
03 Jan 2008 - by Ketill Berger
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Women quantify lack of control over work resources Women quantify lack of control over work resources
Poor rural infrastructure such as the lack of clean water supply, electricity or fuel increases women’s work load and limits their availability for professional training, childcare and income generation. The lack of access to storage facilities and roads contributes to high food costs and low selling prices.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Andean cosmovision The Andean cosmovision
The local Pacha (mother earth) is a micro-cosmos, a representation of the cosmos at large. It is animated, sacred, consubstantial, immanent, diverse, variable, and harmonious. Within the local Pacha there is the Ayllu (Community in Quechuan and Aymaran languages). The Ayllu is comprised of three communities: people, nature, spirits.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agricultural water withdrawals as proportion of total water withdrawals Agricultural water withdrawals as proportion of total water withdrawals
Agriculture already consumes 70% of all global freshwater withdrawn worldwide and has depleted soil nutrients, resulting in N, P and K deficiencies covering 59%, 85%, and 90% of harvested area respectively in the year 2000 coupled with a 1,136 million Mg yr loss of total global production.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agricultural liberalization: Developing country winners and losers under Doha Scenario for agriculture (scenario 1) Agricultural liberalization: Developing country winners and losers under Doha Scenario for agriculture (scenario 1)
Under various new scenarios for world agricultural trade and development many of the world's regions will be negatively affected. Under the Doha Scenario China would fair the worst with many developing nations running into a negative scenario.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global legislation concerning and global burden of, infectious animal diseases Global legislation concerning and global burden of, infectious animal diseases
Serious socioeconomic impacts can arise when diseases spread widely within human or animal populations (such as H5N1), or when they spill over from animal reservoirs to human hosts; farming intensification often increases these risks. Even small-scale animal disease outbreaks can have major economic impacts in pastoral communities.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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A multifunctional perspective of agriculture A multifunctional perspective of agriculture
In IAASTD, multifunctionality is used solely to express the inescapable interconnectedness of agriculture’s different roles and functions. The concept of multifunctionality recognizes agriculture as a multi-output activity producing not only commodities (food, fodder, fibers and biofuels), but also non-commodity outputs such as ecosystem services, landscape amenities and cultural heritages.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture
Agricultural trade offers opportunities for developing countries to benefit from larger scale production for global markets, acquire some commodities cheaper than would be possible through domestic production, and gain access to new forms of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and equipment (e.g. fertilizers, HYV seeds, pump sets, etc.). Projections for the Doha round of trade negotitations show, though, that for the agricultura...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Areas of physical and economic water scarcity Areas of physical and economic water scarcity
Under current water use practices, increases in population and changes in diet are projected to increase water consumption in food and fiber production by 70-90%. If demands for biomass energy increase, this may aggravate the problem. In addition, sectoral competition for water resources will intensify, further exacerbating the stress on developing country producers.
03 Jan 2008 - by Unknown
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Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000 Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000
During a 20 year period between 1981 to 2000 the amount of agricultural research by developing nations has outgrown those of higher income countries. The increase has been steady throughout the entire period as it is in the Asia Pacific region.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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