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Wood and wood products from tropical countries to Europe and the United States Wood and wood products from tropical countries to Europe and the United States
EU imports 133–385 million cubic meters RWE of wood products. The US imports about 72 million. About 59 per cent of the imports to the EU and the US are paper and pulp. The wood used to produce paper and pulp is often mostly or partly declared falsely as plantation wood.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal Logging and log laundering Illegal Logging and log laundering
Mixing of legal with illegal wood, including in pulp, chips and paper is the far most common way to hide the imports of illegally procured timber.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Rhino, and other wildlife, smuggling routes to and from Nepal Rhino, and other wildlife, smuggling routes to and from Nepal
Rhinos were hunted intensively during the war in Nepal in the early to mid 2000s, with catastrophic effects to habitats such as Bardia National park.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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The bushmeat chain reaction The bushmeat chain reaction
The illicit bushmeat trade involves a series of underlying socio-economic factors, but leads, with rising population densities, to local depletions of wildlife species, and increasingly inside protected areas.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources
Militias, as here from DRC, put considerable emphasis upon controlling entrance roads to cities and the road network, as well as ports, in order to tax any good passing. Here, charcoal, being the primary energy supply to cities and thus abundant in large volumes, automatically becomes a significant source of income to militias.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Saiga antelope populations Saiga antelope populations
Saigas have been hunted since prehistoric times and today poaching remains the primary threat to this critically endangered species. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Saiga populations crashed by more than 95% within a decade. While a number of Saiga populations are starting to stabalize, three continue to be in a precarious state (North-West Pre-Caspian, Ural and Ustiturt populations).
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal wildlife trafficking affects species population Illegal wildlife trafficking affects species population
The illegal trade in wildlife excluding timber and fisheries has been estimated by different sources to be worth 7–23 billion dollars annually, involving a wide range of species including insects, reptiles, amphibians, fish and mammals. It concerns both live and dead specimens or products thereof. Illegal harvest and trade further includes a range of species from iconic ones like gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans, elephants, tigers, rhinos, Ch...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal logging methods Illegal logging methods
The illegal trade in flora, such as illegal logging, has been estimate to represent a value of 30-100 billion USD annually. An estimated 50-90% of the wood in some tropical countries is suspected to come from illegal sources. Many of these illegal operations involve bribes to forest officials (in some instances noted as USD 20-50,000).
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal logging and the Congo conflict Illegal logging and the Congo conflict
Illegal logging directly fuels many conflicts, as timber is a resource available for conflict profiteers or to finance arms sales. Without public order, militants, guerrillas or military units impose taxes on logging companies or charcoal producers, issue false export permits and control border points. They frequently demand the removal of all vehicle checkpoints and public patrolling of resource-rich areas as part of the peace conditions followi...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo
The illicit charcoal trade in eastern DRC, but also into Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania, is a significant income to criminals and militias. Militias in DRC are estimated to make 14–50 million USD annually on road taxes (2001 figures, see UNSC, 2001 and UNEP-INTERPOL, 2012).
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Forests and conflicts Forests and conflicts
Around the world, conflicts and wars are taking a toll on forests and on the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be a vital source of revenue for warring parties to sustain conflict.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Major environmental crimes Major environmental crimes
The economic scale of environmental crime is substantial - especially on illegal logging and fisheries - and probably just as large as or well exceed global ODA (Official Development Assistance) of around USD 135 billion.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Environmental crime network Environmental crime network
The opportunities ecosystems provide for future development are threatened by serious and increasingly sophisticated transnational organized environmental crime. This includes illegal logging, poaching and trafficking of a wide range of animals, illegal fisheries, illegal mining and dumping of toxic waste. It is a rapidly rising threat to the environment, to revenues from natural resources, to state security and to sustainable development. Combin...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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The charcoal supply chain The charcoal supply chain
With current urbanization trends, households are switching from wood fuel to the affordable, convenient and readily accessible charcoal. Wood fuel and charcoal account for up to 90% of the household energy consumption in some countries, in Africa in particular. There exists today a vast illicit, unregulated trade in charcoal, in addition to the legal trade, which provides substantial funds for non-state armed groups.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Charcoal business in Virunga area Charcoal business in Virunga area
The multitude of military groups operating in this region makes Virunga one of the most dangerous parks in the DRC. The charcoal trade is one of many lucrative illicit trades in the park, which also include timber extraction, gold mining, and marijuana cultivation.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab
Al Shabaab’s main income appears to be from charcoal, and taxing of other commodities, as well as possibly ex-pat finance. At a single roadblock they have been able to make up to USD 8–18 million per year for taxing passing charcoal traffic in Badhaadhe District, Lower Juba Region. Al Shabaab retains about one third of the income, which alone constitutes about USD 38–56 million. The overall size of the illicit charcoal export from Somalia has b...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Sturgeon catch in the Caspian Sea and caviar imports Sturgeon catch in the Caspian Sea and caviar imports
The sturgeon – sought for its caviar – has declined dramatically in what is now a heavily illegal trade. To reduce the illicit trade in any wildlife, responses must include front line protection, customs control, investigation and prosecution of networks and targeted consumer awareness programmes as well as general awareness to the local populations on the threats posed to their local economy, food security and sustainability.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Brazilian Amazone: Law enforcement operations cause 76% reduction in deforestation Brazilian Amazone: Law enforcement operations cause 76% reduction in deforestation
Brazil managed to reduce deforestation in the country primarily through a targeted and strict enforcement effort using satellite images to detect recent logging, followed by direct action by SWAT teams and investigators also of companies and networks, dropping deforestation by 64-78%.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range
Approximately 19,000 elephants are located within or very near conflict zones in countries with civil wars or significant unrest and armed non-state groups. Up to a maximum 15% of elephant populations are killed annually in or very near conflict zones (ca. 2,850 elephants). An estimated 100,000 elephants are located within a 500 km striking range of such areas of which approximately 5,000 elephants are killed. Within and near conflict zones non-s...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Wood charcoal production in Africa Wood charcoal production in Africa
In Africa 90% of wood consumed is estimated used for woodfuel and charcoal (East Africa 94%, North Africa 96%, Central Africa 87%, South Africa 49%, West Africa 92%). Africa has an official charcoal production of 30.6 million tons in 2012, worth approximately USD 6.1–24.5 billion annually at the point of sale.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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