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Number of motile species
Number of motile species observed at different depths in the Gulf of Mexico.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Number of sessile species
Number of sessile or relatively sessile species observed at different depths in the Gulf of Mexico. The vertical axis is a log scale for depth, and the biologically important zones that we wished to investigate are noted...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygeen
Distribution of shallow, mesophotic and deep fish species
Proportion of shallow species vs. mesophotic specialist and deep species per depth, along a gradient from 20–70 m in Puerto Rico (Bejarano et al. 2014).
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kritina Thygesen
Mesophotic sh species (50-120 m) from Fiji
Total numbers of fish species within each family collected at depths of 50–120 m in Fiji, showing proportional numbers of new species and unidentified species (more than half of which are likely new species). All but Tra...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) established under rising sea levels
All MCE habitats were established under rising global sea levels after the last ice age (Figure 2.12). Sea level was 120 m below its present position at around 18,000 years before present (BP) when Pleistocene reefs ...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Eect of morphology on light harvesting
The absorption of light is influenced by the micromorphology of coral and algal skeletons.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Deepest observations of zooxanthellate scleractinian coral
The depth range of zooxanthellate mesophotic scleractinian corals is location-dependent due to differences in light penetration and other abiotic factors.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Reef environment and light reaching the mesophotic zone
Conceptual model of light penetration in the ocean. Blue light dominates the photic zone below 30 m, but the actual depth of light penetration is site-specific and dependent on a variety of physical factors, such as su...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Current extent of MCE studies
Extent of MCE investigations to date (adapted from Richard Pyle unpublished data). At least 80 countries (those with documented shallow reefs; Spalding et al. 2001) have potential MCEs. Countries that do not have surfa...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kritina Thygesen
The mesophotic coral ecosystem
MCEs can form on high-angle continental and insular slopes as illustrated here, or on low-angle outer insular shelves and on the tops of submerged banks. Decreased light penetration rather than reduced temperature appe...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Interconnection between land and shallow-water and mesophotic reefs
Impacts of human and natural disturbances tend to decrease with depth and distance from the coast, making shallow reefs generally more vulnerable than MCEs.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Ecosystem services of mesophotic coral ecosystems
Ecosystem services are benefits provided to human societies by ecosystems — services such as regulating climate and weather, maintaining biodiversity and providing food and essential habitat (Costanza et al. 1997). As ex...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Species restricted to the mesophotic zone in the Gulf of Mexico
Percentage of observed mesophotic species that occur only in mesophotic zones at either 30–100 m or 30–150 m.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Mesophotic coral ecosystem case studies
MCEs are found worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. The existence of corals at mesophotic depths has been known since at least 1889, when Darwin reported the discovery of corals at depths of 128 m (Darwin ...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Rank of top four sh in four depth zones
Rank of top four fish species occurring at mesophotic depths off La Parguera, Puerto Rico.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygeen
Data summary for scleractinian corals at Eilat reef
Table 1. Data summary for scleractinian coral cover (per cent) at Eilat IUI reef, mean Shannon-Wiener index of diversity (H’), mean number of species per quadrat (#), and total number of species of all corals observed al...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Mesophotic sh species (50-150 m) from Cook Islands, Palau and Papua New Guinea
Total numbers of fish species within each family collected at depths of 50–150 m in the Cook Islands, Palau and Papua New Guinea, showing proportional numbers of new species. All but Symphysanodontidae (one specimen) are...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Western Atlantic mesophotic scleractinian species
Relationship between the number of scleractinian coral species with and without zooxanthellae from shallow reefs to 150 m in the western Atlantic (Weil unpublished).
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Contribution of macroalgae - to mesophotic coral ecosystems
Macroalgae are important, if not essential, components of coral reef communities (Figure 4.2). While substantially less information is available on deep-water macroalgae than on their shallow-water counterparts, informat...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Evolution of world’s capture of marine species
Growing population means increased human activity and a greater use of the ocean every year (e.g. increases in fishing, ship transport, marine based tourism, exploitation of non-living resources, etc.). Human activities ...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Total size of the world´s fleet of ships 1980 – 2013
Our growing population means increased human activity and a greater use of the ocean every year (e.g. increases in fishing, ship transport, marine based tourism, exploitation of non-living resources, etc.). Human activit...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Population of Coastal Cities
The population of coastal cities continues to expand.
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Land based and marine industry sources of pollution
Illustration of selected pressures and impacts with regard to pollution (Ref. WOA Summary, pages 26 to 29). Multiple pressures interact cumulatively in ways that are poorly understood but that can amplify the effec...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
The levels of DPSIR framework
The DPSIR framework (Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) is used to assess and manage environmental problems. Driving forces are the socio-economic and socio-cultural forces driving human activities, which ...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
The drivers
Human activity is causing widespread changes to the oceans’ physical, chemical and biological systems. The major driving forces of change in the ocean are to be found outside the marine environment. Just as most of the...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Global trends in the state of the world marine sh stock, 1974-2011
The increased use of resources and ocean space are adversely affecting the state of the ocean. On all measures the ocean is changing – the waters are warming and becoming dangerously more acidic, commercial fish species ...
13 May 2016 - by
Ocean water per person
If we divide up the ocean among the current 7 billion human inhabitants of Earth, we each have only one fifth of a cubic kilometer of ocean. That relatively small amount of water generates half the oxygen we breathe in a...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Global marine protected areas
The WOA assessment encourages us to ask the question “how far will we go before we put in place adequate responses to global problems?” We do not need to stop all use of the oceans, but we must effectively manage use to...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
The growth in cruise passengers worldwide, 1990-2015
Our growing population means increased human activity and a greater use of the ocean every year (e.g. increases in fishing, ship transport, marine based tourism, exploitation of non-living resources, etc.). Human activit...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Knowledge gaps in understanding the ocean
The information that we need to understand the ocean can be divided into four main categories: (a) the morphology of the seafloor; (b) the composition and circulation of ocean water; (c) the biota of the ocean; and (d) t...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
The ten themes addressed in the World Ocean Assessment
In order to organize the complex task of assessing the environmental, social and economic aspects of the ocean, the WOA is divided into 10 themes (Ref: WOA Summary, pages 7 to 10 providing overview of themes).
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Hydropower lights up the Tropical Andes
As we have seen, climate change will have a significant impact on water flow, thus affecting hydropower generation, which generates the majority of power in the region. In South America as a whole, hydropower generates a...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Climate and hydrological disasters in the Tropical Andes countries
The Andes are characterized by significant risk for extreme events. Some are climate driven, such as wildfires, mudslides and avalanches, while others are not, such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. However, climate...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Food security, disasters and climate change vulnerability in the Tropical Andes region
Problems with water supply, hydropower, agriculture and biodiversity all have drastic effects on human health. Agricultural problems will drive poverty and food insecurity primarily among people living in the mountains b...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Flood occurrence / Drought severity
The observed and predicted changes in precipitation, with more in the north-west and less in the south, will exacerbate the existing problems of water availability. Additionally, higher temperatures will increase evapora...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Climate change in the Tropical Andes
The clearest trend in the Tropical Andes is the increase in air temperature. The Tropical Andes are expected to experience some of the most drastic change in climate in South America (Urrutia and Vuille, 2009; Hijmans et...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
The effect of El Niño on weather in the Andes
Changing seasonality is perhaps the most important change in precipitation patterns observed so far. In the south in particular, there are indications that the rainy season has become more intense and more seasonally con...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
The Tropical Andes eco-regions
Mountain environments provide a wide range of ecosystem services, from the cycling of nutrients, water and greenhouse gases to disease regulation and protection from landslides and floods. The Tropical Andes contain a wi...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
The Tropical Andes region
The Tropical Andes region is the area of the Andean Mountain range from their northernmost point at 11°N in Colombia until 23°S on the southern border of Bolivia (Cuesta, 2012). This definition is based on national borde...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Water stress in the Tropical Andes countries
Climate change will dramatically reduce the capacity of mountain environments to provide water for drinking, sanitation, industries, mining, agriculture and energy. Temperature increase, precipitation patterns changes, g...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Deforestation in the Tropical Andes region
Grass- and wetlands cover the areas of the high Andes from the treeline and up to the edge of the snow. These unique ecosystems include the neotropical alpine grasslands, known as páramos, dry and wet puna grasslands and...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Population distribution within the Tropical Andes countries
All countries in the region have high levels of urbanization and population growth. These trends will significantly increase and concentrate the demand for services and resources, which are already often threatened by cl...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Agriculture and pasture production in the Tropical Andes region
Agriculture, being one of the most significant economic activities in the Andes Mountains, is particularly important to those living there but also to the wider economy. However, it is one of the human activities most af...
16 Jun 2016 - by Riccardo Pravettoni/Cartografare il Presente
Energy: Total Production
The main domestic sources of electricity generation in the region are lignite and hydropower. Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia and Kosovo depend mainly on lignite (coal)-fired thermal hydropower plants for e...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Landslides and mudflows in Georgia in 1995-2013
Large areas of the country are under threat from natural hazards. In Georgia, almost 70 per cent of the territory, home to some 57 per cent of the population, is at risk from disasters, including mudflows (32 per cent of...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Landslides and floods in Armenia in 2003-2014
Armenia’s main threats are from land- and mudslides, primarily on mountain slopes and hillsides. About one-fifth of all communities in Armenia have been affected by landslides. Areas with the highest risk of mudslides in...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields in the 2040s under the Medium Impact Scenario, no adaptation and no irrigation water constraints
Water constraints are perceived as the most severe impact of climate change on the agricultural sector. Climate change will inevitably increase the number of areas needing irrigation, the water demand for crops, and ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields in the 2040s in the South Caucasus
The changes in crop yields, however, vary between locations. For certain crops in the mountain regionsthe changes may, in some cases, be beneficial. When assessing the impact of changes in temperature and precipitation, ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Rate of population below the poverty line in Georgia by districts and big cities in 2014
In addition to having higher exposure to natural disasters, lower access to healthcare, poor household constructions and higher poverty rates make mountain communities even more vulnerable to such events (CENN and ITC 20...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Physical map of the South Caucasus
The impacts of climate change may have severe consequences for the people and environment of the mountainous areas of the South Caucasus. The characteristics of these areas, including high risk of natural disasters, low ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Irrigated zones and water shortage scenarios for 2040 in the South Caucasus
The capacity of farmers to adapt to the impacts of climate change is low due to poorly managed irrigation and drainage systems, limited financial resources restricting the use of new technologies, inadequate support from...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Illegal logging in Georgia in 2000-2013
In Georgia, over 60 per cent of its forests are situated on mountain slopes at an elevation of 1,000 m.a.s.l or higher (MoENRP 2015; MoENR 2010; Ulander and Ter-Zakaryn 2012). Forest ecosystems protect biodiversity, stor...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Illegal logging in Armenia in 2000-2013
The mountainous areas of the South Caucasus have a wide variety of climate zones, ranging from cold moderate alpine peaks to temperate, humid and arid landscapes.6 The variation in climate zones gives the region its uniq...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Climate-related diseases in the Caucasus in 1999-2013
Climate change directly impacts human health and security. Natural disasters have the most obvious and immediate impact on people’s health and security as they abruptly destroy property, livelihoods, infrastructure, can ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Potential hydroresource, Energy consumption and Power generation by HPP in the South Caucasus in 2013
Primary energy supplies in the three countries vary according to their access to fossil fuels and water resources.16 Georgia relies on imported gas and oil, but also have renewable energy such as hydropower for electrici...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Ecosystems of the South Caucasus
The mountainous areas of the South Caucasus have a wide variety of climate zones, ranging from cold moderate alpine peaks to temperate, humid and arid landscapes.6 The variation in climate zones gives the region its uniq...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
National Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments Availability by Sector/Country (2)
All the countries of the South Caucasus made a commitment to develop separate policy documents on climate change adaptation, either internationally or nationally. Such commitments derive not only from international oblig...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
References to climate change adaptation in development strategies (Only strategies in force are covered)
Almost none of the development strategies (such as sustainable development and/or poverty reduction strategies) of the South Caucasus countries have an all-inclusive and adequate appreciation of climate change. Furthermo...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Existence of Coordination Mechanisms on Climate Change (As described above)
Coordination mechanisms can be clustered in the following way: (a) intergovernmental councils (b) inter-ministerial/agency national councils, (c) government experts groups, (d) donor coordination mechanisms, (e) experts ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
National Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments Availability by Sector/Country (1)
All the countries of the South Caucasus made a commitment to develop separate policy documents on climate change adaptation, either internationally or nationally. Such commitments derive not only from international oblig...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Analysis of the institutional framework for climate change adaptation
The findings of the study in Chapter 2: Analysis of adaptation policies for vulnerable sectors be summarised as follows (see also table on the right): • None of the South Caucasus countries have specially designated l...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Overview of Presence of Climate Adaptation and Mountain Regions in Current Sectoral Strategies (Strategies under development or ones with expired term are not considered in the table)
The analysis of the sectoral policies of the three countries of the South Caucasus reveals that: • More recent policy documents are more comprehensive in their coverage of adaptation issues. For example, the National En...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
References to mountain regions and adaptation in development strategies (Only strategies in force are covered)
Almost none of the development strategies (such as sustainable development and/or poverty reduction strategies) of the South Caucasus countries have an all-inclusive and adequate appreciation of climate change. Furthermo...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Observed climate changes and scenarios for South Caucasus
Aremnia: The national trend of a warmer and drier climate that has been observed over the last 80 years is forecast to continue throughout the 21st century. Temperatures are predicted to increase 1.3–1.7°C by 2040, 2.6–...
14 Jun 2015 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Energy
Emerging policies and actions aim to increase the efficiency of energy production and consumption, and to promote a transition to low or zero-carbon energy sources. These policies, which are clearly relevant to climate c...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Forestry and biodiversity
All countries are undergoing several important forest policy processes, such as developing national forest programmes, revising forest legislation, developing national action plans to combat illegal logging, forest certi...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Food
Agricultural legislation defines the basis for sustainable agriculture in all Western Balkan countries. However, so far this legislation has not integrated climate change adaptation, nor are mountain areas reflected. The...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Land
Even though the Western Balkan countries are facing serious land degradation threats and Albania has several laws focused on establishing the measures and structures for preventing land degradation),14 in general legisla...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Water
Water sector legislation is quite similar in all of the Western Balkan countries, with the exception of Croatia due to its direct implementation of the key EU directive. The water sector is regulated at the state level i...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Climate-related disasters
Climate-related natural disasters and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and wildfires, also directly affect people’s health and well-being. Apart from the risk of being directly killed by floods, they (together w...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Tourism
The Western Balkans has vast potential for sustainable tourism due to its rich cultural heritage and diversity, attractive coastlines and historic cities, and some of Europe’s largest and wildest landscapes. Tourism is o...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Wind power potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Geothermal energy potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Solar electricity potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Infrastructure
In the Western Balkans region, achieving efficient and modern internal transport networks and infrastructure and communication networks between the region’s countries will be a key enabler of economic growth and transiti...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Forest coverage per country
Forests occupy a large proportion of the land area in the Western Balkans – from 28 per cent in Albania up to 44.7 per cent in Kosovo1 (Tomter et al., 2013, World Bank, 2012) – and play a significant social and economic ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Forest fires
Climate change is also a very real risk for forests and their management. Forest fires are already a major hazard across the Balkans. A significant increase in the number and intensity of wildfires across the region has ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Protected areas
The number and size of protected areas in the region has been increasing, although the share of protected land is still low if compared with that of the EU. Some protected areas have been established recently or are in t...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Forests and protected areas
The mountain areas of Western Balkan countries are predominantly covered by forests very rich in biodiversity, both in terms of flora and fauna of either global or European conservation importance. There are vast areas o...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Water stress, uses and withdrawal
Presently the Western Balkan countries are some of the most water-rich in Europe with regards to the amount of water available per person (10,600 cubic metres, which is twice the European average) (World Bank, 2003). Mos...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Agriculture
Agriculture still plays an important role in the economies of the region and employment, despite its overall decline compared with industry and the services sector. Almost 50 per cent of land in the region is used for ag...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Projected decline in days with snow cover for the 2050s
Higher temperatures will also shift the snowline upwards. By 2050, a reduction of up to 20 days in snow cover is expected across the Balkans and up to 50 days in the Dinaric Arc (Schneider et al., 2013). More intense rai...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Heavy precipitation change: Projected changes from 1971-2100
Temperature: Predicting the climate in mountainous regions is particularly diffcult due to the complex topography. Mountains create diverse microclimates, which require high density of measurement. The distinct local di...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Projected extreme heatwaves: 2020-2052
The increased incidence and intensity of heatwaves are expected to shift temperature-related mortality from winter to summer, with fewer colder-related deaths and more heat-related ones. In the long-term, the net total n...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Trends in annual temperature & precipitation: 1960-2014
Temperature: Temperatures have risen in the region in the last fifty years, and every country in the region has experienced warming with this trend accelerating in the most recent decades (UNFCCC National Communications...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Energy: Total Final Consumption (TFC)
The energy sector is considered highly important for the economic growth of the Western Balkan countries, where there is large potential for the development of this sector to bring new investments to the region. A high d...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Transport, Infrastructure and Communication
Transportation, infrastructure and communication policies are key to economic growth and transition in the Western Balkans region. The transportation sector, in particular, has significant environmental implications; an ...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Tourism
Albania, Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro have developed active tourism strategies, while Kosovo1 has a draft document. The previous tourism strategy for FYR Macedonia, valid until 2014, has not been updated, although the...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Socio-economic indicators
Today, the countries of the Western Balkans are at a turning point in the development of their economies, societies and environment. A number of social, economic and other drivers will shape the region’s future. Integrat...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
The Western Balkans region
The Western Balkans is a designation used (most commonly by the European Union) for a region which includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo. The region, consider...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Human Health
The laws governing healthcare in the countries of the Western Balkans create the conditions to maintain and improve the health of their citizens. According to these laws, healthcare measures include prevention and protec...
14 Jun 2015 - by Nieves Izquierdo/Cartografare il Presente
Hindu Kush Himalayan region population and area
The population of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region is approximately 210 million. The communities are largely agrarian, relying heavily on local natural resources and subsistence farming on small plots of land. Like many a...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Extreme rainfall events – Salween and Mekong
Extreme rainfall is increasing in the southernmost part of the Mekong basin and southern and southwestern part of the Salween basin, while extremes are decreasing in most parts of the central and southern parts of the Me...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Salween-Mekong basins climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Salween and Mekong river basins receive an average of 1,226 mm of rainfall per year. Out of the total precipitation, 17% and 69% are received during the pre-monsoon and monsoon season, respectively, whils...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
The Mekong and Salween river basins
Like the Salween and Yangtze rivers, the Mekong river arises in the Three Rivers Source Area high in the Tibetan plateau in Qinghai, China. The Sanjaingyuan National Nature Reserve was established to protect the headwate...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Upper Salween/Mekong basins future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Rainfall projections in summer show an increasing trend over both upper basins, with an increase of about 5–10% over the southern areas where the normal precipitation is low. In the upper part of these basins...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Selected upper river basins of the HICAP study, average 1998–2007
Precipitation falls as either snow or rain, depending on the temperature, which is closely linked to elevation. Snow can be stored as long-term (perennial) snow or become ice and contribute to the growth of glaciers. Sno...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
Future contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Projected total flow and average discharge by 2041–2050, RCP 8.5 dry-warm case
Depending on the stream flow composition (glacial melt, snow melt, rainfall, baseflow), different rivers within each of the basins will respond differently to climate change. Currently, the peak discharges within the upp...
14 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni