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Global Trade in Used Tires, 2013
The global trade in used tires is quite extensive. Part of the flow is legal trade, and part of it is illegal. The IMPEL research uncovered 25 illegal shipments of tires from European ports in 2012-2013. As is the case w...
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
United Kingdom E-waste Production and Shipping
In England, the first case where anyone was sentenced to jail for illegal export of e-waste was concluded in May 2014. A licensed waste processor was jailed for 16 months by a court in the UK for illegally exporting 46 t...
10 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Shipbreaking in 2014
Shipbreaking – the dismantling of end-of-life vessels for the recovery of steel and other materials – takes place mainly within five countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, and Turkey. India and Bangladesh dismant...
04 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
2006 Côte d'Ivoire Toxic Waste Dump
The August 2006 case of illegal dumping of hazardous waste in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, from the tanker Probo Koala brought to international attention the complex problems associated with transboundary movements of hazardo...
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
The Legal-Illegal Interface in E-Waste Collection & Transport
Illegal waste recycling poses a challenge to the legal waste business. The informal players in the e-waste business fall into several categories. Some are the so-called “waste tourists” who buy second-hand electronics an...
04 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
Substances Contained in Mobile Phones
25 tonnes of mobile phones can yield 10 kg of gold. But electronic goods also contain a wide variety of hazardous substances. For example, printed circuit boards contain arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and bromides.
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
IMPEL-TFS Enforcement Actions III
The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) has been running waste shipment inspection projects within the European region since 2003. The current project, Enforcement A...
04 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
Global Illegal Waste Traffic
Over the last few decades, cross-continent transport has increased markedly in volume with new intermodal haulage methods, such as containerization (the transport of containers using multiple transport modes, such as rai...
09 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
EU Countries Hazardous Waste Generation & Shipments
Illegal shipments of hazardous waste are increasing between northwest and northeast Europe, and waste is also shipped from south to southeast Europe and the Balkans (Romania, Hungary, and Albania).
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
High Profit, Low Risk
The main drivers of the trade in hazardous waste appear to be the high costs of proper treatment and the opportunities for illegal actors to operate in a market with relatively low risks and high financial benefit. In ad...
10 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
The Internet Market for Used Electronic Items in China
The Internet is becoming increasingly important in the e-waste sector. Both companies and individuals offer second-hand electronics for sale and sometimes even for free. Scrap metal dealers (operating both physically an...
09 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Basel Convention, Ban Amendment, and OECD/EU Members, as of December 2014
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention) is the major international agreement that regulates the transboundary movement and disposal of haza...
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
New E-waste Trafficking Routes in Southeast Asia
Stringent enforcement in one country commonly leads to changes in traditional illegal shipment routes through neighbouring countries. Strong enforcement practices, such as China’s Green Fence campaign, have been changin...
09 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Stretching the ecosystems beyond their limits
Ecological Footprints tell the extent to which people use what the biosphere provides. The Footprint methodology can therefore also measure the environmental demands of food production and show to what extent food produc...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Will there be enough food for 9.6 billion people?
About 200 000 to 230 000 people are added to the world food demand daily, and the UN estimates that by 2050 the world population will reach 9.6 billion (UN DESA 2013). Developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Afri...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Diet composition
As a result of population growth and changing consumption patterns, the demand for food and production of food is increasing. Cereals such as wheat, rice and maize provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets (C...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Restoring ecosystems could feed 740 million people
There are great potentials in restoring degraded land. Globally there are over 560 million hectares of degraded agricultural land (Oldeman 1992) that could be restored through sustainable agricultural practices and green...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Footprint and population are growing faster than the Earth’s biocapacity
Ecological Footprint accounting quantifies both the annual availability of biocapacity and human demand on that capacity (Wackernagel et al. 2002; Borucke et al. 2013). Since 1961, the total Footprint has increased by 15...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
How food is lost and wasted
Globally, one-third of all food produced is either lost or wasted. There is a clear variation between developing and developed countries with regards to food loss and waste. In developing countries, food loss is the gr...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Food loss and waste by region
Ensuring food security for a growing global population is not only about producing more food, but also about reducing the enormous amount of food that is either lost or wasted. Globally, one-third of all food produced is...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Global food loss and waste
Ensuring food security for a growing global population is not only about producing more food, but also about reducing the enormous amount of food that is either lost or wasted. Globally, one-third of all food produced is...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Land types needed for food production
The average “foodprint” today is at least 0.66 global hectares per person, which corresponds to more than one-third of the Earth’s biocapacity, or about one-fourth of humanity’s Ecological Footprint (calculations based o...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Fisheries production, utilization and supply
In 2009, 145 million tonnes of fish were caught or farmed through aquaculture globally, of which about 122 million tonnes were used as food for people (FAO 2012d). In 2010, the estimated annual per capita fish consumptio...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Cereal production increase
An estimated 37.6 per cent of the world’s total land area is used for agriculture (FAO 2013a), and this ratio continues to expand. The past 50 years have seen global crop production expand threefold, with cereal producti...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Wood and wood products from tropical countries to Europe and the United States
EU imports 133–385 million cubic meters RWE of wood products. The US imports about 72 million. About 59 per cent of the imports to the EU and the US are paper and pulp. The wood used to produce paper and pulp is often mo...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal Logging and log laundering
Mixing of legal with illegal wood, including in pulp, chips and paper is the far most common way to hide the imports of illegally procured timber.
01 Dec 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Rhino, and other wildlife, smuggling routes to and from Nepal
Rhinos were hunted intensively during the war in Nepal in the early to mid 2000s, with catastrophic effects to habitats such as Bardia National park.
15 Dec 2014 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
The bushmeat chain reaction
The illicit bushmeat trade involves a series of underlying socio-economic factors, but leads, with rising population densities, to local depletions of wildlife species, and increasingly inside protected areas.
03 Dec 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources
Militias, as here from DRC, put considerable emphasis upon controlling entrance roads to cities and the road network, as well as ports, in order to tax any good passing. Here, charcoal, being the primary energy supply to...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Saiga antelope populations
Saigas have been hunted since prehistoric times and today poaching remains the primary threat to this critically endangered species. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Saiga populations crashed by more than 95% ...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal wildlife trafficking affects species population
The illegal trade in wildlife excluding timber and fisheries has been estimated by different sources to be worth 7–23 billion dollars annually, involving a wide range of species including insects, reptiles, amphibians, f...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal logging methods
The illegal trade in flora, such as illegal logging, has been estimate to represent a value of 30-100 billion USD annually. An estimated 50-90% of the wood in some tropical countries is suspected to come from illegal sou...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal logging and the Congo conflict
Illegal logging directly fuels many conflicts, as timber is a resource available for conflict profiteers or to finance arms sales. Without public order, militants, guerrillas or military units impose taxes on logging com...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo
The illicit charcoal trade in eastern DRC, but also into Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania, is a significant income to criminals and militias. Militias in DRC are estimated to make 14–50 million USD annually on road taxes (2...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Forests and conflicts
Around the world, conflicts and wars are taking a toll on forests and on the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be a vital source of reve...
18 Dec 2014 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, GRID Arendal
Major environmental crimes
The economic scale of environmental crime is substantial - especially on illegal logging and fisheries - and probably just as large as or well exceed global ODA (Official Development Assistance) of around USD 135 billi...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Environmental crime network
The opportunities ecosystems provide for future development are threatened by serious and increasingly sophisticated transnational organized environmental crime. This includes illegal logging, poaching and trafficking of...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
The charcoal supply chain
With current urbanization trends, households are switching from wood fuel to the affordable, convenient and readily accessible charcoal. Wood fuel and charcoal account for up to 90% of the household energy consumption in...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Charcoal business in Virunga area
The multitude of military groups operating in this region makes Virunga one of the most dangerous parks in the DRC. The charcoal trade is one of many lucrative illicit trades in the park, which also include timber ...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab
Al Shabaab’s main income appears to be from charcoal, and taxing of other commodities, as well as possibly ex-pat finance. At a single roadblock they have been able to make up to USD 8–18 million per year for taxing pass...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Sturgeon catch in the Caspian Sea and caviar imports
The sturgeon – sought for its caviar – has declined dramatically in what is now a heavily illegal trade. To reduce the illicit trade in any wildlife, responses must include front line protection, customs control, investi...
18 Dec 2014 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, GRID Arendal
Brazilian Amazone: Law enforcement operations cause 76% reduction in deforestation
Brazil managed to reduce deforestation in the country primarily through a targeted and strict enforcement effort using satellite images to detect recent logging, followed by direct action by SWAT teams and investigators ...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range
Approximately 19,000 elephants are located within or very near conflict zones in countries with civil wars or significant unrest and armed non-state groups. Up to a maximum 15% of elephant populations are killed annually...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Wood charcoal production in Africa
In Africa 90% of wood consumed is estimated used for woodfuel and charcoal (East Africa 94%, North Africa 96%, Central Africa 87%, South Africa 49%, West Africa 92%). Africa has an official charcoal production of 30.6 mi...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Population growth in Sub-Saharan and Central Africa
Current population projections by UN’s Population Division suggest an increase from ca. 0.9 billion today to 2.1 billion people by 2050 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The UN further estimates the urbanization in Sub-Saharan Afri...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants
The CCAC is a partnership of governments, intergovernmental organisations, representatives of the private sector, the environmental community, and other members of civil society. It is a unique initiative to support fast...
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The Himalayas - SLCPs in High Elevation Regions
SLCPs, especially BC and co-pollutants, are major contributors to the South Asian atmospheric brown cloud, with important consequences for monsoon rainfall and glacier retreat. Fast action on SLCPs could help slow the ra...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cryosphere: Zoom in on the Arctic
The Arctic is currently warming two to three times faster than the global average and is expected to warm more than any other region on Earth. SLCPs contribute to increased melting in the Arctic, and BC deposited on snow...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Agriculture
Implementation of the 16 control measures specified in the Time to Act publication is expected to have significant benefits for agriculture worldwide. Rapid reduction of methane and sot has the potential to avoid an annu...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Effects on Agriculture - SLCPs, a Threat to Agricultural Productivity
SLCPs, especially tropospheric O3, detrimentally impact ecosystems including crop yields, and are affecting food security. Present day global relative yield losses due to tropospheric O3 exposure has been estimated for f...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Public Health
Implementation of the 16 SLCP control measures as presented in the Time to Act publication is expected to yield a substantial benefit for public health saving approximately 2.4(0.7-4.6) million outdoor air pollution rela...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Effects on Public Health - Air Pollution, a Preventable Risk
SLCPs, particularly O3 and BC and co-pollutants, which are important parts of PM2.5 air pollution, are harmful to human health. Globally, PM2.5 is a major global cause of premature mortality. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 air...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
SLCPs and Sea-Level Rise
SLCP control measures could help reduce the rate of sea-level rise, one of the most concerning effects of climate change. An immediate implementation of control measures could reduce the rate of sea-level rise by about 2...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Consequences of Delayed Mitigation
The delayed implementation of the SLCP control measures presented in the Time to Act publication could have negative consequences on temperature rise. Due to the relatively short lifetimes of SLCPs climate benefits could...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
SLCP Climate Benefit - Avoided Global Warming
Rapid implementation of SLCP mitigation measures, together with measures to reduce CO2 emissions, would greatly improve the chances of keeping the Earth´s temperature increase to less than 2˚C relative to pre-industrial ...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cost of Control Measures (A)
Half of the emission reductions of both BC and CH4 could be achieved at net cost savings or low cost over the lifetime of the measures, taking into account climate benefits only. If all benefits are considered, all contr...
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cost of Control Measures (B)
Half of the emission reductions of both BC and CH4 could be achieved at net cost savings or low cost over the lifetime of the measures, taking into account climate benefits only. If all benefits are considered, all contr...
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
SLCP Control Measures
16 cost effective control measures involving technologies and practices that already exist and could significantly reduce SLCP emissions. If implemented globally, these measures could reduce global methane emissions by 4...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
HFCs are man-made fluorinated greenhouse gases rapidly building up in the atmosphere. They are used as replacements for ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in air conditioning, refrigeration, foam-blowing, fire retardants, ...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Tropospheric Ozone (O3)
Tropospheric Ozone (O3) is a major air and climate pollutant. It causes warming and is a highly reactive oxidant, harmful to crop production and human health. O3 is known as a `secondary´ pollutant because it is not emit...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane (CH4)
Approximately 60% of methane is emitted from human activities. Methane is one of the most significant drivers of climate change, as well as the main precursor of tropospheric ozone, a powerful greenhouse gas and air poll...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Black Carbon (BC) and Co-pollutants from Incomplete Combustion
Black carbon (or soot) particles are formed from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. It is a powerful climate forcer and dangerous air pollutant. BC and co pollutants make up the majority of PM2.5 air ...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
What are Short-Lived Climate Pollutants?
SLCPs are substances with a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere – a few days to a few decades – and a warming effect on near term climate. The main SLCPs are BC, CH4, tropospheric O3, and many HFCs. A reduction i...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The SLCP Opportunity - Benefits of Control Measures
A number of available mitigation options have been identified that if rapidly implemented have the potential to deliver rapid multiple benefits for human well-being by improving air quality and reducing near term global ...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The SLCP Challenge
SLCPs are responsible for a substantial fraction of near term climate change, with a particularly large impact on sensitive regions of the world, and have significant detrimental health, agricultural and environmental im...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Time to act
Short-lived climate pollutants are everywhere in our lives. They are impacting the climate system and the quality of our air. It is time to act against these pollutants and deliver near term and multiple benefits for hum...
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
GOODS bioregions abyssal
Abyssal provinces bioregions. Depth range 3500 to 6500 metres.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Examples of exploration tools
Exploration for ferromanganese crusts involves the identification, delineation and evaluation of deep sea mineral resources and generally requires sophisticated, multipurpose research vessels using advanced technologies ...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Key element of marine reserve design
The hey design elements of marine reserves listed by the partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO 2007) provide a useful starting point for considering marine spatial planning and MPA planning.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea-floor ferromanganese crust mining system and related sources of potential environmental impact.
The operation of sea-floor production tools will increase levels of introduced noise, vibration, and light. There can be direct damage to other animals, sessile benthic fauna will be particularly vulnerable.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
List of potential studies
List of potential studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Relative abundance of megafanual taxa
Relative abundance of megafaunal taxa (number of animals per hectare) from the different substrate types sampled during Japan-SOPAC surveys.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cobalt-rich crust
A generalized schematic of biological characteristics associated with ferromanganese crust on a seamount in the Pacific (with reference to Fukushima 2007 and Clark et al. 2011b).
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
GOODS bioregions bathyal
Lower bathyal provinces. Depth range 800 to 3000 metres.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of cobalt, nickel, and other metals of potential economic importance in ferromanganese crusts
Cobalt, the trace metal of greatest economic interest, can be up to 2 per cent, but usually averages 0.5 to 0.8 per cent by weight. Ferromanganese crusts contain, among other metals, the highest concentrations of the r...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Concentration of iron and manganese in deep sea crusts
Concentration of iron and manganese in ferromanganese crusts.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Formation of Fe-Mn crusts
A wide array of metals and elements dissolved in ocean water are adsorbed (meaning to adhere to a surface) in large quantities onto the manganese and iron oxides. The main source of nearly all metals dissolved in seawa...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Location of Seamounts
n the Pacific Ocean there are more than 11,000 seamounts (57% of the global total) and 41 000 knolls, and many more might exist in uncharted waters. Many seamounts are within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZs) of Pacific...
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Participating Pacific Island States
The Pacific ACP States (i.e., Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European-Union-funded SPC Deep Sea Minerals Project.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The road from exploration to exploitation
Environmental impact assessment and environmental permitting process considerations – an example from Papua New Guinea.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Gifford Guyot, Tasman Sea, southwest Pacific Ocean
This multibeam sonar image was collected in 2007 aboard the RV Tangaroa during a Geoscience Australia marine survey. The flat top of the guyot is about 250 m deep.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Potential structure of a mineral fund
A simplified structure of a natural resources fund, its actors and functions.
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Yearly revenue vs. withdrawal with PIH
Yearly revenue vs. withdrawal with permanent-income hypothesis (PIH).
12 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Fiscal Progressivity
This figure shows the contribution of three different fiscal elements to the fiscal burden on a mining project: corporate income tax, additional profits tax, and royalty. The burden is measured in terms of state take (y-...
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Key governance principles for sustainability
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Signatories to the Noumea Convention
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The social licence
Model of a social licence to operate: levels granted by community.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The Bismarck-Solomon Sea region
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Deep sea mining life cycle
Deep sea mining lifecycle - key stages and impacts.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Difference between EIA and SEA
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as part of a decision-making process.
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Benefit-cost analysis
11 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal