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The Times Atlas of the World
Uploaded on Saturday 25 Feb 2012
Turkmenistan, topographic map
Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan, comprising of 488,100 sq km. It has a population of 4,952,081 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification.