Using this graphic and referring to it is encouraged, and please use it in presentations, web pages, newspapers, blogs and reports.
For any form of publication, please include the link to this page and give the cartographer/designer credit (in this case Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Living Planet Report 2000, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
Uploaded on Saturday 25 Feb 2012
Trends in marine and freshwater populations
Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Marine Species Population Index provides an assessment of the average change over time in the populations of 217 species of marine mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The index represents the average value of six regional ocean indices. More pronounced declines are seen in the southern oceans, which is attributed to the fact that major losses and degradation of marine ecosystems in the industrialised world took place prior to 1970.
Marine species are generally more difficult to monitor than terrestrial ones. Assessments are therefore based primarily on fishery catches, and the monitoring of land breeding species (e.g. turtles, birds and seals). However, these species are over-represented in the index, which should have a far greater proportion of invertebrate species.