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CITES, Monitor the Illegal Killing of Elephants, 2012; African Elephant Database (AED)/IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group (AfESG.
Uploaded on Monday 11 Mar 2013
Percentage of illegally killed elephants per sub-region
Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Central Africa has shown worrying poaching trends for some time, and has consistently displayed the highest levels of poaching in any sub-region since MIKE monitoring began. In 2006, PIKE levels were at 0.5, meaning that about half the elephant carcasses encountered on patrol in MIKE sites were reported as illegally killed. In 2011, however, PIKE levels had risen to 0.9. This extremely high PIKE level exceeds any of poaching data is becoming apparent, and poaching levels are sufficiently high to warrant concern. The small and fragmented elephant populations in West Africa are particularly vulnerable to increases in poaching, which can severely distort sex ratios and lead to local extinctions. Historically, elephant populations of less than 200 are known to die out within a matter of a few decades (Bouché et al. 2011). This has happened in several elephant
populations in West Africa, but a recent example is Comoé National Park in Côte d’Ivoire, where poaching associated with the country’s recent civil war has reduced elephant populations to near extinction (Fischer 2005; CITES 2012a).
Eastern Africa has experienced a three-fold increase in reported
illegally killed elephants in MIKE sites from a PIKE level of
about 0.2 in 2006 to almost 0.6 in 2011. In Tanzania, PIKE levels were higher than 0.7 across the country’s five MIKE sites. Many of these reports on illegal killings came from the Selous Game Reserve in southern Tanzania, which is recognized as the largest game reserve in the world and also an UNESCO World
Heritage Site (Baldus 2009). In 2011, more than 65 per cent of the 224 carcasses encountered on patrols had been killed by
poachers (CITES 2012a). Ruaha Rungwa National Park, where PIKE levels were higher than 0.9 in 2011, is another disturbing
example of elephant poaching in Tanzania. Kenya showed similar
poaching levels in 2011, with two thirds of the 464 carcasses
reported in MIKE sites identified as illegally killed, particularly in the Tsavo National Park and the Samburu Laikipia ecosystem (CITES 2012a). Uganda harbours a much smaller elephant population and has not reported as many carcasses as its neighboring countries. Still, the Murchison Falls National Park and the Queen Elizabeth National Park reported PIKE levels of 0.8 and 0.9 respectively in 2011. In 2011, an estimated 7 per cent of the elephant population living in MIKE sites in Eastern Africa were killed.
Southern Africa shows the lowest PIKE levels of any sub-region,
but here MIKE data also suggest an increasing trend in poaching
over the last decade. In 2006, the PIKE level in all MIKE sites in Southern Africa combined was 0.3 and therefore slightly
higher than that of Eastern Africa that same year. By 2011, the
PIKE level had almost doubled, and for the first time was higher
than 0.5 (CITES 2012a). In particular, the Niassa National Reserve in Mozambique reported a very high PIKE level. Of the 85
elephant carcasses registered at this site in 2011, 75 were identified as being illegally killed (CITES 2012a). In 2011, it is estimated that 4 per cent of the total elephant population living in MIKE sites in Southern Africa were killed illegally.