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AMAP, 1997 and 1998; IAEA, 1991, 2001 and 1996; Crane and Galasso, 1999.
Uploaded on Friday 17 Feb 2012
Nuclear activities in the Arctic over the last 50 years
Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Numerous nuclear explosions have taken place in the Arctic. One of the largest military nuclear testing facilities is on the island of Novaya Zemlya, where from 1955 through to 1990 the Soviet Union detonated 88 atmospheric, 29 underground, and 3 underwater nuclear devices. Dozens of civilian 'peaceful nuclear explosions' have also occured in the Russian Arctic, where nuclear bombs were used into the late 1980's for seismic studies, mining, and in attempts to extinguish oil-field fires