Using this graphic and referring to it is encouraged, and please use it in presentations, web pages, newspapers, blogs and reports.
For any form of publication, please include the link to this page and give the cartographer/designer credit (in this case Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). 2006. Acidifying Pollutants, Arctic Haze and Acidification in the Arctic. AMAP Assessments. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway.
BBC. 2010. Press review. www.bbc.co.uk/news [Accessed 11 February2010].
CBC. 2010. Press review. www.cbc.ca [Accessed 11 February 2010].
Irons, D. B., Anker-Nilsson, T., Gaston, A. J., Byrd, G. V., Falk, K., Gilchrist, G., Hario, M., Hjernquist, M., Krasnov, Y. V., Mosbech, A., Olsen, B., Petersen, A., Reid, J. B., Robertson, G. J., Strom, H. & Wohl,
K. D. 2008. Fluctuations in circumpolar seabird populations linked to climate oscillations. Global Change Biology. 14: 1455-1563.
Reuters. 2010. Press review. www.reuters.com [Accessed 11 February 2010]
Uploaded on Tuesday 21 Feb 2012
Murre colonies and human activities
Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The thick-billed murre and common murre have ranges 1,000,000 km2 and number in the millions or tens of millions of breeding pairs. However global populations are declining, although increases have occurred in some regions. These seabirds, together with other species of alcids, face a number of direct and indirect marine and terrestrial threats, which influence their survival and reproductive success. These include transboundary pollutants, by-catch mortality from fisheries, competition with fisheries for fish stocks, disturbance of breeding sites/habitat, and unsustainable harvesting. Marine pollution, especially oil, is a significant threat. Alcids are particularly sensitive to even small oil spills because of their concentrated aggregations. There is also concern over the impacts of cruise ship tourism on Arctic seabird colonies, given its rapid growth. Greater ship traffic increases the risk of groundings and other accidents, which may result in oil spills and other consequences.