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Hillshade generated from SRTM 90m DEM available from the CGIAR website (http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/). Sumatran orangutan distribution shapefile prepared by Singleton and Wich and based on Wich et al. 2008 with unpublished data added. Forest layer interpreted by PanEco/ YEL, 2010 from Landsat 5 TM, 2009 and Landsat ETM 7 filled, 2010. Hunting data obtained from Socio-Economic surveys (2811 respondents in 377 localities) conducted between 2007 and 2009 around the Batang Toru forests by PanEco/YEL and partners (in prep.). Hockings, K. and Humle, T. 2009. Best practice guidelines for the pre-vention of conflict between humans and great apes. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), Gland, Switzerland Nijman, V. 2009. An assessment of trade in gibbons and orangutans in Sumatra, Indonesia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. van Noordwijk, M. and Minang, P.A. 2009. If we cannot define it, we cannot save it. ETFRN NEWS 50: 5-10 Campbell-Smith G., Simanjorang H.V., Leader-Williams N. and Linkie M. 2010. Local attitudes and perceptions towards crop-raiding by orangu-tans (Pongo abelii) and other non-human primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Am J Primatol 72: 866-876.