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Adapted from Hein 2004.
Uploaded on Wednesday 12 Mar 2014
Formation of Fe-Mn crusts
A wide array of metals and elements dissolved in ocean water are adsorbed (meaning to adhere to a surface) in large quantities onto the manganese
and iron oxides. The main source of nearly all metals dissolved in seawater is erosion of the continents. The exception is manganese, which derives primarily from hydrothermal sources and mixes throughout the global ocean.