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Uploaded on Friday 28 Feb 2014 by GRID-Arendal

Basics of a hydrothermal vent - a Black Smoker

Year: 2014
From collection: Deep Sea Minerals Volume 1A
Author: GRID-Arendal
Description:
Seawater percolates through the sea floor and is modified by chemical exchange with the surrounding rocks and rising magmatic fluid. The altered seawater is released back into the ocean at the vent site and forms a hydrothermal plume. The rising plume mixes rapidly with ambient seawater, lowering the temperature and diluting the particle concentration. The plume will continue to rise through seawater as long as it is less dense than the surrounding seawater. Once the density of the hydrothermal plume matches the density of the seawater, it stops rising and begins to disperse laterally. In a scenario like this, 90 per cent of the metals are lost to the plume and do not take part in the metal deposit formation process.
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The road from exploration to exploitation
Environmental investigation
Participating Pacific Island States
Distribution of known SMS occurrences
Chemoautotrophic symbiotic relationships
Geochemistry of massive sulphides in various tectonic settings
Location of Pual Ridge and SuSu Knolls as well as SMS deposits in the eastern Manus Basin
Global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields