Using this graphic and referring to it is encouraged, and please use it in presentations, web pages, newspapers, blogs and reports.
For any form of publication, please include the link to this page and give the cartographer/designer credit (in this case Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006)
source: Igor A. Shiklomanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHL. St. Petersburg) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO, Paris), 1999.
Uploaded on Thursday 16 Feb 2012
A World of Salt
Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Global water type by percentage.
Estimates of global water resources based on several different calculation methods have produced varied estimates. Shiklomanov in Gleick (1993) estimated that:
- The total volume of water on earth is 1.4 billion km3.
- The volume of freshwater resources is 35 million km3, or about 2.5% of the total volume. Of these, 24 million km3 or 68.9% is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in mountainous regions, and in the Antarctic and Arctic regions.
- Some 8 million km3 or 30.8% is stored underground in the form of groundwater (shallow and deep groundwater basins up to 2,000 metres, soil moisture, swamp water and permafrost). This constitutes about 97% of all the freshwater potentially available for human use.
- Freshwater lakes and rivers contain an estimated 105,000 km3 or 0.3% of the world’s freshwater.
- The total usable freshwater supply for ecosystems and humans is 200,000 km3 of water, which is less than 1% of all freshwater resources, and only 0.01% of all the water on earth (Gleick, 1993; Shiklomanov, 1999).