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Vital Water Graphics 2Vital Water Graphics 2
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been at the forefront of assessing and monitoring global water resources and presenting information on their use and management for 30 years. UNEP has compiled this report in order to provide an easily accessible resource on the state of the world's waters. The goal of this publication is to produce a clear overview, through a set of graphics, maps and other illustrations, of the state of the world's fresh and marine waters. It also illustrates the causes, effects, trends and threats facing our water sources, with examples of areas of major concern and future scenarios for the use and management of fresh, coastal and marine waters.
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/water2/
Fish diversity in freshwater systems Fish diversity in freshwater systems
Although freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and wetlands occupy less than 2% of the earth’s total land surface, they provide a wide range of habitats for a significant proportion of the world’s plant and animal species. Many are yet to be discovered, but the number of freshwater species worldwide is estimated at between 9,000 and 25,000 (Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000). However, this number is rapidly decreasing due to human interference....
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Cereal productivity in sub-Saharan Africa under a projected Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario Cereal productivity in sub-Saharan Africa under a projected Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario
A majority of the population in sub-Saharan African lives in rural areas, where income and employment depend almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture. This population is today at high risk. Sub-Saharan Africa already has a highly variable and unpredictable climate and is acutely vulnerable to floods and droughts. A third of the people in the region live in drought-prone areas, and floods are a recurrent threat in several countries. With climate ch...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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The spread of cholera 1950-2004 The spread of cholera 1950-2004
Increasing floods in between dry periods represent ideal conditions for spreading diseases such as cholera. In Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania located in the desert, precipitations - when they occur - are always accompanied by a cholera epidemic, especially in poor areas where waste matter is not managed. Cholera had almost disappeared globally by the mid 1950s, but it reappeared and spread throughout the world during the last few decades. ...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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More water evaporates from reservoirs than is consumed by humans More water evaporates from reservoirs than is consumed by humans
Throughout the 20th century, global water use has increased in the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors. Evaporation from reservoirs has increased at a slower rate. Projections indicate that both global water use and evaporation will continue to increase.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz)
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Freshwater alkalinity: 1976-2008 Freshwater alkalinity: 1976-2008
Alkalinity is commonly used to indicate a water body’s capacity to buffer against acidity; that is, the ability to resist, or dampen, changes in pH. Thus, alkaline compounds in water, such as bicarbonates, carbonates, and hydroxides, lower the acidity of the water and increase the pH. Alkalinity (as CaCO3) was analysed for all sampling stations available at the continental level. Concentrations remained reasonably steady between the two decades ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
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Water withdrawal and consumption: the big gap Water withdrawal and consumption: the big gap
Freshwater use by continents is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiographic, and climatic characteristics. Analysis indicates that: - Annual global freshwater withdrawal has grown from 3,790 km3 (of which consumption accounted for 2,070 km3 or 61%) in 1995, to 4,430 km3 (of which consumption accounted for 2,304 km3 or 52%) in 2000 (Shiklomanov, 1999). - In 2000, about 57% of the world’s freshw...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, February 2008
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Water storage capacity for selected countries Water storage capacity for selected countries
Cross-country water storage comparisons provide insights into one aspect of risk mitigation capacity. However, storage capacity is only one guide to the linkage between infrastructure and vulnerability. Countries such as Ghana and Zambia have very high levels of water storage per capita - higher, in fact, than the United States - but a limited capacity to mitigate risk. Most of the storage capacity is geared towards power generation, with a very ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Public services provide cheaper water Public services provide cheaper water
By bringing water to people water resellers extend the coverage of piped water and provide a service with important benefits for households - but at a price. That price rises with distance from the utility, as defined by the number of intermediaries between the network and the end consumer. Having a regular supply of clean water piped into the household is the optimal type of provision for human development. Experience suggests that households w...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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World fish consumption per capita and per year World fish consumption per capita and per year
World fish consumption per year and per capita.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Total population: access to sanitation Total population: access to sanitation
The 2004 global image sadly shows that the lack of access to clean water remains a burden for the poorest countries, preventing them accelerating their development. Essentially handicapping most sub-Saharan African countries, the map shows some curious trends, such as Romania, which remains far behind all other European countries.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
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Human actions leading to coastal degradation Human actions leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and the destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most significant threats to coastal areas. Half of the world’s wetlands, and even more of its mangrove forests, have been lost over the past century to physical alterations, the major causes being accelerating social and economic development and poor-planning (UNEP, 2002). There are currently about one billion people living in coastal urban areas. It is estimated t...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
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World's surface water: evaporation and runoff World's surface water: evaporation and runoff
Because much of the world’s surface water is far from concentrations of human settlements, not all of it is readily usable. Some facts concerning global freshwater concentrations: - It is estimated that the freshwater available for human consumption varies between 12,500 km3 and 14,000 km3 each year (Hinrichsen et al., 1998; Jackson et al., 2001). - Many countries in Africa, the Middle East, western Asia, and some eastern European countries ha...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
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The Mekong River - survival for millions The Mekong River - survival for millions
The Mekong River - survival for millions Following the course of the Mekong River helps to understand the human/river hydrological interdependence. From its source on the Tibetan Plateau it drops 5,000 metres and flows across six countries before reaching its delta. More than a third of the population of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam - some 60 million people - live in the Lower Mekong Basin, using the river for drinking water, food, ir...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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World population evolution World population evolution
Trois hypothèses pour l’évolution de la population mondiale : Selon le bureau de la population des Nations unies, la plus vraisemblable est l’hypothèse moyenne : pour les périodes 1995-2000 et 2045-2050, elle prend en compte d’une part, la réduction du nombre d’enfants par femme (de 2,82 à 2,15), et d’autre part, une amélioration de l’espérance de vie à la naissance (de 65 à 76 ans). Le taux d’accroissement naturel tomberait ainsi de ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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The decline of cod in the North Atlantic The decline of cod in the North Atlantic
Graph of the decline of fish stock globally and a map of fish stock in Maritime Canada and the United States.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
4
Dependency ratio in renewable water Dependency ratio in renewable water
The dependency ratio is a good indicator of where tension and conflict over water-sharing and use can occur. The map clearly depicts such areas including central Asia, the Middle East (especially Syria and Iraq), India and Pakistan, and surprisingly, low land countries such as the Netherlands.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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A World of Salt A World of Salt
Global water type by percentage. Estimates of global water resources based on several different calculation methods have produced varied estimates. Shiklomanov in Gleick (1993) estimated that: - The total volume of water on earth is 1.4 billion km3. - The volume of freshwater resources is 35 million km3, or about 2.5% of the total volume. Of these, 24 million km3 or 68.9% is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in mountainous regions, a...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Africa’s rivers and lake basins cross many borders Africa’s rivers and lake basins cross many borders
The below shows the locations of 13 major river basins in Africa.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), 2007
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The contribution of climate change to declining water availability The contribution of climate change to declining water availability
The real concern for the future, in the context of changing patterns of rainfall, is the decrease of run-off water which may put at risk large areas of arable land. The map shows how seriously this issue must be taken, while the forecast indicates that some of the richest arable regions (Europe, United States, parts of Brazil, southern Africa) are threatened with a significant reduction of run-off water, resulting in a lack of water for rain-fed ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
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Coastal populations and shoreline degradation Coastal populations and shoreline degradation
Unsurprisingly, the coastal areas with the greatest population densities are also those with the most shoreline degradation. The areas surrounding the Black Sea, the Mediterranean and southern Asia have the highest proportion of altered land, while the coastal zones of the Arctic, northeast Pacific, south Pacific, West and Central Africa, East Africa, the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden, and Kuwait have the highest proportions of least modified land. In o...
01 Oct 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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