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Collection: Vital Ozone Graphics

Vital Ozone Graphics
Vital Ozone Graphics
Vital ozone Graphics is a compilation of illustrations and case studies intended to describe the issues dealing with the depletion and condition of the Ozone layer encasing earth. the ozone layer filters out dangerous ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, thus protecting life on Earth. Scientists believe that the ozone layer was formed about ...
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/ozone
Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation
The most widely recognised damage occurs to the skin. The direct effects are sun burn, chronic skin damage (photo-aging) and an increased risk of developing various types of skin cancer. Models predict that a 10 per cent...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The colder Antarctic winter drives formation of the hole in the south
The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air. “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on the surfaces of...
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes. The region poleward of this jet stream is called the An...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ozone hole size 1980–2006
The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due...
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops
Experiments on food crops have shown lower yields for several key crops such as rice, soy beans and sorghum. The plants minimize their exposure to UV by limiting the surface area of foliage, which in turn impairs growth....
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Common but differentiated responsibilities
All countries can claim “climate credits” by their phase out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol, and some are beginning to document this contribution. Article 5 countries are those listed as ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The ozone international awakening timeline
A record of major events in the history of producing ozone depleting substances (ODS), the discoveries of the harmful process and the steps made to combat the problem from 1879 to 2006, with predictions to 2070 as the da...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules
There are currently a hundred and ninety-one Parties to this treaty, demonstrating a greater degree of global participation than almost any other agreement managed by the UN. By 2005 these countries had collectively phas...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The ozone protection landscape
Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, Governments finally recognised the need for stronger measures to reduce consumption and production of various CFCs and halons. The Montreal Protocol came into force on 1 January 1989.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ozone depleting substances (ODS) production and consumption. Hence, ODS producer countries and hig...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The global solar UV Index
The Global Solar UV Index (UVI) is a simple measurement of the UV radiation level at the Earth's surface. It has been designed to indicate the potential for adverse health effects and to encourage people to protect thems...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic ozone depletion and stratospheric temperature
Changes in ozone amounts closely follow temperature, with colder temperatures resulting in more polar stratospheric clouds that intensify ozone destruction. The results are compared from 1979 to 2006.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Examples of ozone depleting substances (ODS) smuggling patterns in Asia and the Pacific
In the mid-1990s, when CFCs were phased-out in industrialized countries (non-Article 5 countries), illegal trade in those chemicals emerged. By 1996 this trade had reached alarming proportions, accounting for as much as ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total reported global production of ozone depleting substances (ods)
Ozone depleting solvents were used in dry cleaning, and to clean metal parts in almost all electronic devices, refrigerating equipment and cars. They also played a part in tasks such as laminating wood for desks, bookshe...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Vulnerabilities
Many people from the higher latitudes grill their skin intensely in the sun during their short summer holidays, but only get minimal exposure to the sun for the rest of the year. Such intermittent exposure to sunlight se...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CFC production and consumption in 2005
It was once quoted in the US as being second in value only to cocaine. A 2006 estimate indicated that CFCs alone accounted for 7,000 to 14,000 tonnes of this trade, valued at US$ 25 to US$ 60 million. The disparity in pr...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
CFC end uses in the us in 1987
Ozone depleting solvents were used in dry cleaning, and to clean metal parts in almost all electronic devices, refrigerating equipment and cars. They also played a part in tasks such as laminating wood for desks, bookshe...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Production of main ozone depleting substance (ODS) gases
Since the discovery of their destructive nature, other substances have gradually replaced ozone depleting substances (ODS). In some cases it is difficult to find and costly to produce replacements, which may have undesir...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Skin colour map (indigenous people)
The twin role played by the skin – protection from excessive UV radiation and absorption of enough sunlight to trigger the production of vitamin D – means that people living in the lower latitudes, close to the Equator, ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ozone depletion and climate change
Ozone depletion and climate change are two distinct problems but as they both modify global cycles, they cannot be totally separated. There are still many uncertainties concerning the relations between the two processes.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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