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Collection: Vital Ozone Graphics

Vital Ozone GraphicsVital Ozone Graphics
Vital ozone Graphics is a compilation of illustrations and case studies intended to describe the issues dealing with the depletion and condition of the Ozone layer encasing earth. the ozone layer filters out dangerous ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, thus protecting life on Earth. Scientists believe that the ozone layer was formed about 400 million years ago, essentially remaining undisturbed for most of that time. In 1974, two chemists from the University of California startled the world community with the discovery that emissions of man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a widely used group of industrial chemicals, might be threatening the ozone layer.
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/ozone
Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation
The most widely recognised damage occurs to the skin. The direct effects are sun burn, chronic skin damage (photo-aging) and an increased risk of developing various types of skin cancer. Models predict that a 10 per cent decrease in the ozone in the stratosphere could cause an additional 300,000 non-melanoma and 4,500 (more dangerous) melanoma skin cancers worldwide annually.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The colder Antarctic winter drives formation of the hole in the south The colder Antarctic winter drives formation of the hole in the south
The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air. “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on the surfaces of ice crystals in the clouds release active forms of CFCs. Ozone depletion begins, and the ozone “hole” appears.
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes. The region poleward of this jet stream is called the Antarctic polar vortex. The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air.” “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on th...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ozone hole size 1980–2006 Ozone hole size 1980–2006
The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due to early warming of the polar stratosphere caused by air disturbances originating in mid-latitudes, rather than by major changes in the amount of reactive chlorine and bromine in the Antarctic stratosphere.
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops
Experiments on food crops have shown lower yields for several key crops such as rice, soy beans and sorghum. The plants minimize their exposure to UV by limiting the surface area of foliage, which in turn impairs growth. However the observed drop in yield does not seem serious enough for scientists to sound the alarm.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Common but differentiated responsibilities Common but differentiated responsibilities
All countries can claim “climate credits” by their phase out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol, and some are beginning to document this contribution. Article 5 countries are those listed as developing and do not have the same goals as industrialized nations.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The ozone international awakening timeline The ozone international awakening timeline
A record of major events in the history of producing ozone depleting substances (ODS), the discoveries of the harmful process and the steps made to combat the problem from 1879 to 2006, with predictions to 2070 as the date when the ozone hole over the Antarctic will recover.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules
There are currently a hundred and ninety-one Parties to this treaty, demonstrating a greater degree of global participation than almost any other agreement managed by the UN. By 2005 these countries had collectively phased out more than 95% of the production and consumption of the chemicals controlled by the protocol.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The ozone protection landscape The ozone protection landscape
Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, Governments finally recognised the need for stronger measures to reduce consumption and production of various CFCs and halons. The Montreal Protocol came into force on 1 January 1989.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ozone depleting substances (ODS) production and consumption. Hence, ODS producer countries and high consumers receive more funds since they have greater needs.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The global solar UV Index The global solar UV Index
The Global Solar UV Index (UVI) is a simple measurement of the UV radiation level at the Earth's surface. It has been designed to indicate the potential for adverse health effects and to encourage people to protect themselves. The higher the Index value, the greater the potential for damage to the skin and eye, and the less time it takes for harm to occur.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic ozone depletion and stratospheric temperature Arctic ozone depletion and stratospheric temperature
Changes in ozone amounts closely follow temperature, with colder temperatures resulting in more polar stratospheric clouds that intensify ozone destruction. The results are compared from 1979 to 2006.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Examples of ozone depleting substances (ODS) smuggling patterns in Asia and the Pacific Examples of ozone depleting substances (ODS) smuggling patterns in Asia and the Pacific
In the mid-1990s, when CFCs were phased-out in industrialized countries (non-Article 5 countries), illegal trade in those chemicals emerged. By 1996 this trade had reached alarming proportions, accounting for as much as 12–20% of global trade in ozone depleting substances (ODS).
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total reported global production of ozone depleting substances (ods) Total reported global production of ozone depleting substances (ods)
Ozone depleting solvents were used in dry cleaning, and to clean metal parts in almost all electronic devices, refrigerating equipment and cars. They also played a part in tasks such as laminating wood for desks, bookshelves and cupboards.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vulnerabilities Vulnerabilities
Many people from the higher latitudes grill their skin intensely in the sun during their short summer holidays, but only get minimal exposure to the sun for the rest of the year. Such intermittent exposure to sunlight seems to be a risk factor. On the other hand populations with darker skin pigmentation regularly exposed to similar or even higher UV rays are less prone to skin damage.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CFC production and consumption in 2005 CFC production and consumption in 2005
It was once quoted in the US as being second in value only to cocaine. A 2006 estimate indicated that CFCs alone accounted for 7,000 to 14,000 tonnes of this trade, valued at US$ 25 to US$ 60 million. The disparity in production and consumption has created problems around the world.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CFC end uses in the us in 1987 CFC end uses in the us in 1987
Ozone depleting solvents were used in dry cleaning, and to clean metal parts in almost all electronic devices, refrigerating equipment and cars. They also played a part in tasks such as laminating wood for desks, bookshelves and cupboards.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Production of main ozone depleting substance (ODS) gases Production of main ozone depleting substance (ODS) gases
Since the discovery of their destructive nature, other substances have gradually replaced ozone depleting substances (ODS). In some cases it is difficult to find and costly to produce replacements, which may have undesirable side-effects or may not be applicable for every use.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Skin colour map (indigenous people) Skin colour map (indigenous people)
The twin role played by the skin – protection from excessive UV radiation and absorption of enough sunlight to trigger the production of vitamin D – means that people living in the lower latitudes, close to the Equator, with intense UV radiation, have developed darker skin to protect them from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In contrast, those living in the higher latitudes, closer to the Poles, have developed fair skin to maximize vitamin ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ozone depletion and climate change Ozone depletion and climate change
Ozone depletion and climate change are two distinct problems but as they both modify global cycles, they cannot be totally separated. There are still many uncertainties concerning the relations between the two processes.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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