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Collection: Vital Climate Change Graphics for Latin America and ...

Vital Climate Change Graphics for Latin America and the Caribbean (2010)Vital Climate Change Graphics for Latin America and the Caribbean (2010)
Climate change – its causes, its global consequences and the magnitude of its expected effects on both ecosystems and human activities – will be one of the greatest challenges of this century. It will significantly alter current patterns of production, distribution and consumption, as well as the overall lifestyles of modern societies.
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/lac2
Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti' Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti'
Climate change affect the health of the population, not only through heat waves and waterborne diseases, but also as a result of the expansion of geographical areas conducive to the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as yellow fever, dengue and malaria. Species of mosquitoes, such as the group ‘Anopheles gambiae’, ‘A. funestus’, ‘A. darlingi’, ‘Culex quinquefasciatus’ and ‘Aedes aegypti’, are responsible for propagation of the majority of...
08 Mar 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards
The effects climate change has on different countries are not proportional to their respective contributions to greenhouse gas emissions. Rather, they vary greatly and in some cases the effects may even be positive in specific regions. This presents a general paradox: the countries that are the highest emitters suffer less impact, while those that are lower emitters experience the greatest impact. Metropolitan areas in the region are experiencing...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Use of Renewable Fuels and Waste for Electricity Generation Use of Renewable Fuels and Waste for Electricity Generation
In 2007, 15.8% of the supply of primary energy in Latin America and the Caribbean came from renewable fuels and waste (solid and liquid biomass, biogas, and industrial and urban waste). This is higher than the worldwide average of 9.5% for the same year. Of the region’s countries, Haiti, Paraguay, Nicaragua and Guatemala each obtain more than 50% of their primary energy from renewable fuels and waste. It is important to note, however, that this f...
06 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Deteriorated forest hotspots Deteriorated forest hotspots
Despite showing signs of slowing at the global level, the present pace of deforestation continues to be a source of serious concern for Latin America and the Caribbean. While the region’s forests represent one of the most important potential sources for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, it equally accounted for approximately 70% of the world’s decrease in forests between 2005 and 2010 (FAO 2010). The global forest resource assessment (FRA) con...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005
In 2005, per capita emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean, not taking emissions associated with land use changes into account, amounted to 5.5 MtCO2-e, with Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela having the highest levels of per capita emissions. On the other end of the spectrum, Guatemala, El Salvador and Haiti had the lowest emission levels in the region.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Retreat of the snowcapped volcano of Santa Isabel, Colombia Retreat of the snowcapped volcano of Santa Isabel, Colombia
Between 1959 and 1996, the snowcapped volcano of Santa Isabel in Colombia showed a 44% decrease in its ice-covered peak. This process of decrease in ice has continued, causing it to lose its attraction as a tourist site, with significant economic consequences.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise caused by the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers Sea level rise caused by the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers
Another process that results in rising sea levels is the addition of water mass from land ice. Melting glaciers and ice caps, as well as the vast ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, raise sea-levels if their water mass enters the ocean as melted water or icebergs (Pritchard et al. 2009, Steig et al. 2009, Velicogna 2009). Furthermore, it is estimated that melting of tropical glaciers (most of them are considered small) could cause an increas...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of world greenhouse gas emissions (includes land use change) Share of world greenhouse gas emissions (includes land use change)
The total amount of CO2 emissions, including those associated with land use changes, highlight the contribution of Latin America and the Caribbean to total global emissions of CO2. In total the region contributes to 13% of global emissions when changes in land use is taken into account.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest conservation and sustainable management initiatives Forest conservation and sustainable management initiatives
In November 2009, in an attempt to preserve the forests and slow deforestation, the Governments of Guyana and Norway signed a memorandum of understanding for cooperation on issues related to combating climate change, protecting biodiversity and improving sustainable development, with a particular focus on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the framework of REDD-plus. Within the region, Panama, the Plurinational State ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change) Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change)
A strong heterogeneity in the ratio emission to GDP, including the land use change, is observed among the countries of the region. Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia stand out because of the importance of emissions related to agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980 Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
Emissions increase as economies and populations grow; however, there can also be an energy decoupling (relation between energy and GDP) and a decoupling of emissions and decarbonization (relation between emissions and energy consumption). In this way, an increase in per capita income is achieved with less energy consumption and reduced emissions (ECLAC, 2009). Examining an energy intensity index by region for 1980-2005, one sees that, in aggregat...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change impacts that could affect attainment of the Millennium Development Goals Climate change impacts that could affect attainment of the Millennium Development Goals
Sustainability in the Latin American and Caribbean countries may be affected by climate change impacts. Costs associated with climate change can intensify budget constraints as countries attempt to reduce poverty and work towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals. Food security will be affected because of a decline in the productivity of staple grains, natural disasters and drought may reduce the time available for children’s education. It...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980 Carbon intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
The ratio of emissions to GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean remained constant between 1980 and 2005. This is very much in contrast to the world as a whole, the OECD countries and in particular when compared to China. These figures clearly show the need to intensify efforts within the region to transition to less carbon-intensive economies.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Electricity Production and Sources Electricity Production and Sources
Changes in energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean reveals the importance of improving energy efficiency levels, on both the supply and the demand side, and of expanding the use of renewable energies. In South America, 70% of the electricity produced comes from hydroelectric sources.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions (excludes land use change) Share of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions (excludes land use change)
In 2005 the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean accounted for only 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions, excluding emissions associated with land use changes. Between 1990 and 2005, such emissions in the region increased at an average annual rate of 2.3%, owing to a variety of economic, social and demographic factors. In percentage terms, 2005 emissions increased the region’s share of emissions by one percentage compared to 1990. Nevert...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006 Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006
The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is highly vulnerable to climate change despite the fact that it contributes relatively little to global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2006 (excluding those associated with land use changes) amounted to 38,754 million of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e), with Mexico and Brazil being the main emitters in the region (WRI, 2010). The importance of Latin Am...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Retreat of seven Andean glaciers Retreat of seven Andean glaciers
The seven Andean glaciers Antizana 15a and Antizana 15b in Ecuador, and Broggi, Uruashraju, Yanamarey, Cajap and Pastoruri in Peru have shown a substantial retreat since the 1970s and this is a clear indication of how climate change is affecting the region.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Relative changes in precipitation Relative changes in precipitation
Projections for changes in precipitation patterns are extremely complex, involving a high degree of uncertainty and large heterogeneity. Summer climate projections under climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) show a reduction in precipitation of between 5% and 10% by the end o...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean Energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean
Available evidence indicates that energy intensity – the ratio between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP), expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP) at 2005 prices – in Latin America and the Caribbean remained almost constant in the 1980-2007 period. This shows that the region has not made the progress necessary, in terms of energy efficiency, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gasses. The stagnation in energy-intensity level...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hurricanes on Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009 Hurricanes on Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009
The extreme climatic events of the Mesoamerican and Caribbean region show that there is a strong correlation (most likely non-linear) between greenhouse gas emissions, temperature increases, increased intensity of hurricanes and the rise in sea levels (IPCC 2007 and Stern 2007). For example, in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean sub-region, there were 36 hurricanes between 2000 and 2009, as against 15 and 9 per year in the 1980s and 1990s. Moreover, d...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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