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Time to act - To reduce short-lived climate pollutantsTime to act - To reduce short-lived climate pollutants
Short-lived climate pollutants are everywhere in our lives. They are impacting the climate system and the quality of our air. It is time to act against these pollutants and deliver near term and multiple benefits for human well-being.
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/slcp
The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants
The CCAC is a partnership of governments, intergovernmental organisations, representatives of the private sector, the environmental community, and other members of civil society. It is a unique initiative to support fast action and make a difference on several fronts at once: public health, food and energy security, and the climate.
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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The Himalayas - SLCPs in High Elevation Regions The Himalayas - SLCPs in High Elevation Regions
SLCPs, especially BC and co-pollutants, are major contributors to the South Asian atmospheric brown cloud, with important consequences for monsoon rainfall and glacier retreat. Fast action on SLCPs could help slow the rate of warming over the Himalayan-Tibetanplateau, with multiple benefits for public health, food security and disaster risk reduction.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cryosphere: Zoom in on the Arctic Cryosphere: Zoom in on the Arctic
The Arctic is currently warming two to three times faster than the global average and is expected to warm more than any other region on Earth. SLCPs contribute to increased melting in the Arctic, and BC deposited on snow and ice amplifies warming and exacerbates melting.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Benefits  of SLCP controle measures for Agriculture Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Agriculture
Implementation of the 16 control measures specified in the Time to Act publication is expected to have significant benefits for agriculture worldwide. Rapid reduction of methane and sot has the potential to avoid an annual loss of over 50 metric tonnes of crop yields per year by 2030.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Effects on Agriculture - SLCPs, a Threat to Agricultural Productivity Effects on Agriculture - SLCPs, a Threat to Agricultural Productivity
SLCPs, especially tropospheric O3, detrimentally impact ecosystems including crop yields, and are affecting food security. Present day global relative yield losses due to tropospheric O3 exposure has been estimated for four major crops and range between 7-12% for wheat, 6-16% for soybean, 3-5% for rice and 3-5% for maize.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Public Health Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Public Health
Implementation of the 16 SLCP control measures as presented in the Time to Act publication is expected to yield a substantial benefit for public health saving approximately 2.4(0.7-4.6) million outdoor air pollution related premature deaths annually.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Effects on Public Health - Air Pollution, a Preventable Risk Effects on Public Health - Air Pollution, a Preventable Risk
SLCPs, particularly O3 and BC and co-pollutants, which are important parts of PM2.5 air pollution, are harmful to human health. Globally, PM2.5 is a major global cause of premature mortality. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 air pollution are the fourth and seventh leading risk factors for early mortality globally. In 2010 indoor and ambient outdoor particulate matter pollution were estimated to have caused over 3.5 and 3.2 million premature deaths respe...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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SLCPs and Sea-Level Rise SLCPs and Sea-Level Rise
SLCP control measures could help reduce the rate of sea-level rise, one of the most concerning effects of climate change. An immediate implementation of control measures could reduce the rate of sea-level rise by about 20% in the first half of the century as compared to a "reference" scenario.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Consequences of Delayed Mitigation Consequences of Delayed Mitigation
The delayed implementation of the SLCP control measures presented in the Time to Act publication could have negative consequences on temperature rise. Due to the relatively short lifetimes of SLCPs climate benefits could be achieved quickly after mitigation of emissions.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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SLCP Climate Benefit - Avoided Global Warming SLCP Climate Benefit - Avoided Global Warming
Rapid implementation of SLCP mitigation measures, together with measures to reduce CO2 emissions, would greatly improve the chances of keeping the Earth´s temperature increase to less than 2˚C relative to pre-industrial levels.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cost of Control Measures (A) Cost of Control Measures (A)
Half of the emission reductions of both BC and CH4 could be achieved at net cost savings or low cost over the lifetime of the measures, taking into account climate benefits only. If all benefits are considered, all control measures are cost effective.
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cost of Control Measures (B) Cost of Control Measures (B)
Half of the emission reductions of both BC and CH4 could be achieved at net cost savings or low cost over the lifetime of the measures, taking into account climate benefits only. If all benefits are considered, all control measures are cost effective.
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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SLCP Control Measures SLCP Control Measures
16 cost effective control measures involving technologies and practices that already exist and could significantly reduce SLCP emissions. If implemented globally, these measures could reduce global methane emissions by 40% and black carbon by 80% by 2030. Measures to mitigate high-GWP HFCs could deliver additional near term climate benefits.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
HFCs are man-made fluorinated greenhouse gases rapidly building up in the atmosphere. They are used as replacements for ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in air conditioning, refrigeration, foam-blowing, fire retardants, solvents, and aerosols.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tropospheric Ozone (O3) Tropospheric Ozone (O3)
Tropospheric Ozone (O3) is a major air and climate pollutant. It causes warming and is a highly reactive oxidant, harmful to crop production and human health. O3 is known as a `secondary´ pollutant because it is not emitted directly, but instead forms when precursor gases react in the presence of sunlight.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Methane (CH4) Methane (CH4)
Approximately 60% of methane is emitted from human activities. Methane is one of the most significant drivers of climate change, as well as the main precursor of tropospheric ozone, a powerful greenhouse gas and air pollutant. Ozone has been estimated to cause around 150,000 deaths annually worldwide and affects the health of many more.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Black Carbon (BC) and Co-pollutants from Incomplete Combustion Black Carbon (BC) and Co-pollutants from Incomplete Combustion
Black carbon (or soot) particles are formed from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. It is a powerful climate forcer and dangerous air pollutant. BC and co pollutants make up the majority of PM2.5 air pollution which is the leading environmental cause of poor health and premature deaths. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 air pollution are estimated to have caused over 3.5 and 3.2 million premature deaths annually.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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What are Short-Lived Climate Pollutants? What are Short-Lived Climate Pollutants?
SLCPs are substances with a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere – a few days to a few decades – and a warming effect on near term climate. The main SLCPs are BC, CH4, tropospheric O3, and many HFCs. A reduction in SLCP emissions will quickly have a major positive effect on public health, agriculture in addition to the short-term mitigation of climate problems.
20 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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The SLCP Opportunity - Benefits of Control Measures The SLCP Opportunity - Benefits of Control Measures
A number of available mitigation options have been identified that if rapidly implemented have the potential to deliver rapid multiple benefits for human well-being by improving air quality and reducing near term global warming.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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The SLCP Challenge The SLCP Challenge
SLCPs are responsible for a substantial fraction of near term climate change, with a particularly large impact on sensitive regions of the world, and have significant detrimental health, agricultural and environmental impacts.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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