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Orangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest Management in Sumatra
Orangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest Management in Sumatra
Deforestation is responsible for approximately 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and is therefore a major contributor to climate change, but also to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services and a direct threat to Asia’s great ape – the orangutan. Between 2005-2010, Indonesia had accelerating forest loss compared to 2000-2005 and is ...
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/organgutans-sumatra
Hunting of orangutans
Orangutans are also still regularly killed or captured. This occurs for three main reasons: first, even today some people still hunt orangutans for food, most notably in the non-Muslim parts of North Sumatra. Second, whe...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in forest cover, 1985-2007
Between 1985 and 2007, 49.3% of all forests on the island were lost. In the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra the figures were 22.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Most forest loss has occurred in the lowlands, the very area...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Multinational networks to exploit natural resources
A generalized diagram of how multinational networks exploit natural resources by developing numerous temporary subsidiaries and use corruption and security firms to ensure rapid exploitation and maximum profits. Arms tra...
08 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Ahlenius
Carbon stock for different type of land uses, on mineral and peat soil
For a range of land uses that occur in Tripa (forests on peatland) and Batang Toru (forest on non-peatland) the profitability and carbon stocks were determined. Undisturbed forest clearly has the highest carbon stock whi...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual rainfall
Sumatran orangutans live in lowland tropical rainforests, with precipitation normally between 1,680 mm and 4,070 mm annually. Western regions receive much more rain than those in the east, as prevailing winds from the In...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land use values
The area where orangutans occur can be separated into two main habitat types: forest on peat-lands (Tripa) and forests on mineral soils (Batang Toru), and the results are presented for these types separately. Values for ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Above-ground carbon stocks
Some of the richest above-ground carbon stocks are found in forests occupied by Sumatran orangutans. The total carbon stored in the above-ground woody biomass of a tropical forest varies between 170 and 250 tonnes of car...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conservation areas and the Leuser Ecosystem
Approximately 50% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is inside conservation areas directly managed by the Ministry of Forestry, and 78% lies within the boundaries of the vast Leuser Ecosystem Conservation Area.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human relative population density
Only areas with very low human population densities harbour orangutans. In Aceh and North Sumatra, human settlements are still primarily concentrated in the relatively flat coastal zones, particularly along the north and...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Roads
Roads, both existing and planned, are a major threat to Sumatran orangutans as they increasingly fragment populations, making them more vulnerable and less viable. Often such roads are crossing protected areas such as th...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecological zones
Sumatran orangutans occur in two main forest habitats, those on dryland mineral soils and those on wet coastal peat. The three main peat areas are Singkil, Kluet and Tripa on the west coast of Aceh province.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water catchments
Orangutan habitat overlaps the catchments of 44 major rivers in Sumatra, each of which reaches the coast and discharges into the sea. Thus it is very important to guarantee proper functioning of ecosystem services relate...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Smuggling routes of illegally logged ramin timber from Indonesia, including from national parks and protected areas
Illegal transport and organization of illegal logging by syndicates. Much of the timber is re-sold during transport and thus changes ownership en route, obliterating tracking efforts to trace origins and diluting import-...
07 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Alhenius
Land not suitable for major agriculture crops
An estimated 88% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is on land classified by Indonesian Government studies (RePPProT) as completely unsuitable for cultivation of major crops such as oil palm, rubber, robusta coffee or cocoa. O...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land use types that replaced forest in the Leuser Ecosystem during 1985-2007
The main driver for forest loss on peat areas in the Leuser Ecosystem was oil palm development between 1985 and 2007, while for forest on non-peatlands other land uses than oil palm contributed more to land use changes.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Administration
Sumatran orangutan habitat overlaps 2 Provinces and 21 Districts, presenting many challenges for integrated development policies. 78% of the species’ present range lies within Aceh, and the remaining 22% in North Sumatra...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land cover change in Tripa, Indonesia
In the Tripa peat swamps, companies are operating seven large concessions of between 3,000 and 13,000 hectares. They are converting the remaining forests on peatlands into oil palm plantations. The concessions cover more...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mining exploration
The mining industry is a potential threat to Sumatran orangutan habitat in a number of important areas, both directly by its own activities and indirectly by road access. It includes a major gold mine near the town of Ba...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Megafauna
Forests that support Sumatran orangutans also harbour high numbers of other animal and plant species, including some of the most emblematic megafauna species in the world, the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), S...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Elevation
The Bukit Barisan mountain range that runs down the full length of Sumatra reach altitudes of over 3,000 meters above sea level (m asl), with the highest peaks being Gunung Kerinci in West Sumatra (3,800 m asl) and Gunun...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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