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Orangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest Management in SumatraOrangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest Management in Sumatra
Deforestation is responsible for approximately 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and is therefore a major contributor to climate change, but also to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services and a direct threat to Asia’s great ape – the orangutan. Between 2005-2010, Indonesia had accelerating forest loss compared to 2000-2005 and is within the highest five countries for percentage of primary forest loss globally. This acceleration in forest loss not only negatively impacts forests and biodiversity, but also local and global ecosystem services such as water supply, human health and food security in addition to climate change mitigation. Much of the deforestation is caused by both illegal and short-term economic gains, often ndermining long-term development goals.
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/organgutans-sumatra
Hunting of orangutans Hunting of orangutans
Orangutans are also still regularly killed or captured. This occurs for three main reasons: first, even today some people still hunt orangutans for food, most notably in the non-Muslim parts of North Sumatra. Second, when orangutans enter farms or plantations at the for-est edge, for example to feed on fruit trees or other crops, they are often shot or otherwise killed, and any surviving infant eventually ends up in trade or as someone’s illegal ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Change in forest cover, 1985-2007 Change in forest cover, 1985-2007
Between 1985 and 2007, 49.3% of all forests on the island were lost. In the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra the figures were 22.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Most forest loss has occurred in the lowlands, the very areas where orangutan density is highest.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Multinational networks to exploit natural resources Multinational networks to exploit natural resources
A generalized diagram of how multinational networks exploit natural resources by developing numerous temporary subsidiaries and use corruption and security firms to ensure rapid exploitation and maximum profits. Arms trading has been reported from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, while the bribes and “security firms” also play a major role in Indonesia. This graphic is republished from "The last stand of the Orangutan" Rapid Response Assessm...
08 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Ahlenius
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Carbon stock for different type of land uses, on mineral and peat soil Carbon stock for different type of land uses, on mineral and peat soil
For a range of land uses that occur in Tripa (forests on peatland) and Batang Toru (forest on non-peatland) the profitability and carbon stocks were determined. Undisturbed forest clearly has the highest carbon stock while rice fields have the lowest.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual rainfall Annual rainfall
Sumatran orangutans live in lowland tropical rainforests, with precipitation normally between 1,680 mm and 4,070 mm annually. Western regions receive much more rain than those in the east, as prevailing winds from the Indonesian ocean are forced upwards, cooling rapidly and condensing water vapour, which then falls as precipitation.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land use values Land use values
The area where orangutans occur can be separated into two main habitat types: forest on peat-lands (Tripa) and forests on mineral soils (Batang Toru), and the results are presented for these types separately. Values for carbon were calculated according to Butler et al. 2009 model using a discount rate of 6.5% and voluntary market prices (mean USD 13.33t/CO2, range USD 9.43-17, forest carbon report). Under the fixed scenario the carbon price remai...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Above-ground carbon stocks Above-ground carbon stocks
Some of the richest above-ground carbon stocks are found in forests occupied by Sumatran orangutans. The total carbon stored in the above-ground woody biomass of a tropical forest varies between 170 and 250 tonnes of carbon per hectare.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Conservation areas and the Leuser Ecosystem Conservation areas and the Leuser Ecosystem
Approximately 50% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is inside conservation areas directly managed by the Ministry of Forestry, and 78% lies within the boundaries of the vast Leuser Ecosystem Conservation Area.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human relative population density Human relative population density
Only areas with very low human population densities harbour orangutans. In Aceh and North Sumatra, human settlements are still primarily concentrated in the relatively flat coastal zones, particularly along the north and east coasts, and in alluvial areas elsewhere.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Roads Roads
Roads, both existing and planned, are a major threat to Sumatran orangutans as they increasingly fragment populations, making them more vulnerable and less viable. Often such roads are crossing protected areas such as the Gunung Leuser National Park.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ecological zones Ecological zones
Sumatran orangutans occur in two main forest habitats, those on dryland mineral soils and those on wet coastal peat. The three main peat areas are Singkil, Kluet and Tripa on the west coast of Aceh province.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water catchments Water catchments
Orangutan habitat overlaps the catchments of 44 major rivers in Sumatra, each of which reaches the coast and discharges into the sea. Thus it is very important to guarantee proper functioning of ecosystem services related to water.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Smuggling routes of illegally logged ramin timber from Indonesia, including from national parks and protected areas Smuggling routes of illegally logged ramin timber from Indonesia, including from national parks and protected areas
Illegal transport and organization of illegal logging by syndicates. Much of the timber is re-sold during transport and thus changes ownership en route, obliterating tracking efforts to trace origins and diluting import-export figures.
07 Mar 2011 - by Hugo Alhenius
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Land not suitable for major agriculture crops Land not suitable for major agriculture crops
An estimated 88% of Sumatran orangutan habitat is on land classified by Indonesian Government studies (RePPProT) as completely unsuitable for cultivation of major crops such as oil palm, rubber, robusta coffee or cocoa. Only 1.3% of orangutan habitat is deemed ideal for one or more of these crops, while 10.7% could be suitable with significant inputs, such as fertilizer and irrigation.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land use types that replaced forest in the Leuser Ecosystem during 1985-2007 Land use types that replaced forest in the Leuser Ecosystem during 1985-2007
The main driver for forest loss on peat areas in the Leuser Ecosystem was oil palm development between 1985 and 2007, while for forest on non-peatlands other land uses than oil palm contributed more to land use changes.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Administration Administration
Sumatran orangutan habitat overlaps 2 Provinces and 21 Districts, presenting many challenges for integrated development policies. 78% of the species’ present range lies within Aceh, and the remaining 22% in North Sumatra. A total of 13 districts in Aceh, and eight in North Sumatra, contain forests where wild Sumatran orangutans still occur.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land cover change in Tripa, Indonesia Land cover change in Tripa, Indonesia
In the Tripa peat swamps, companies are operating seven large concessions of between 3,000 and 13,000 hectares. They are converting the remaining forests on peatlands into oil palm plantations. The concessions cover more than 75 percent of Tripa’s total area of 62,000 hectares. While almost certainly hosting as many as 1,000 orangutans or more in the early 1990s, when still covered in pristine peat swamp forest, there are thought to be less than ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mining exploration Mining exploration
The mining industry is a potential threat to Sumatran orangutan habitat in a number of important areas, both directly by its own activities and indirectly by road access. It includes a major gold mine near the town of Batang and iron ore mining in the Alas valley, and planned development of coal mining in the hill forests inland of the Tripa swamps.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Megafauna Megafauna
Forests that support Sumatran orangutans also harbour high numbers of other animal and plant species, including some of the most emblematic megafauna species in the world, the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Elevation Elevation
The Bukit Barisan mountain range that runs down the full length of Sumatra reach altitudes of over 3,000 meters above sea level (m asl), with the highest peaks being Gunung Kerinci in West Sumatra (3,800 m asl) and Gunung Leuser (3,404 m asl) in Aceh. Sumatran orangutan habitat is primarily in lowland areas. The highest densities are found below 500 m asl, but individuals can still be encountered on occasion as high as 2,000 m asl.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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