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Orangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest Management in Sumatra
Orangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest Management in Sumatra
Deforestation is responsible for approximately 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and is therefore a major contributor to climate change, but also to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services and a direct threat to Asia’s great ape – the orangutan. Between 2005-2010, Indonesia had accelerating forest loss compared to 2000-2005 and is ...
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/organgutans-sumatra
Value for the avoided CO2 emissions during a 25-year transition period from primary forest to oil palm or other land uses
For the focus areas Batang Toru and Tripa in the two main orangutan habitats (forest on non-peatlands and peat) it was calculated what the values (USD/ha) would be of the avoided CO2 emissions over a period of 25 years. ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Areas that qualify for protection under Indonesian law
Under Indonesian law, areas that qualify for protection are based on slope (>40%), sensitive soil types, elevation (above 2000m), and peat land (>3m), thereby preventing any man-made development within most of the Sumatr...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tourism
Sumatran orangutan habitat offers excellent opportunities for tourism, including direct viewing of orangutans and other diverse wildlife, jungle treks and caving, rafting and bathing in rivers and hot springs, and even u...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fire events in Tripa
Although the burning of peat is forbidden by Indonesian law, more than 458 fire hotspots have been detected by satellite in Tripa during the last 10 years, the vast majority being located within palm oil concessions.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Abatement costs for transition from undisturbed forest to other land uses
Opportunity costs for the transition from forest to other land uses between 1994-2009 in Tripa and 1990-2009 in Batang Toru are shown. For the transition to the most profitable land-use a price of slightly more than USD ...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conversion of forests to different land uses
Using satellite images, land use changes were determined at Batang Toru (2001-2009) and Tripa (2001-2009) to calculate overall CO2 emissions. Deforestation in both areas led to different land use transitions, with the pr...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conversion from primary forest to other land uses, 1985-2007
The main driver for forest loss on peat areas in the Leuser Ecosystem was oil palm development between 1985 and 2007, while for forest on non-peatlands other land uses than oil palm contributed more to land use changes.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Below-ground carbon stocks
The three coastal peat swamps of Tripa, Kluet and Singkil together represent the most important habitat for Sumatran oran-gutan populations in terms of density (van Schaik et al. 1995). When considering that the depth of...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems vs. great ape distribution
All great ape species predominantly live in tropical rainforests, which are among the most carbon-rich areas in the world. This overlap between the areas where great apes occur and carbon indicates that more potential sy...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Land cover change in Batang Toru
Migration from the island of Nias to the West Batang Toru forests over the last two decades has been largely spontaneous. These settlers have opened up primary forests for agriculture and hunt many species of local wildl...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ecosystem services value for the Leuser Ecosystem
Values for the various non-carbon ecosystem services (water, regulation of floods and landslides, fisheries, prevention and limitation of fires, agriculture, tourism, and non-timber forest products (NTFP) and biodiversit...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Timber concessions
Some timber concessions overlap orangutan habitat in a number of key locations. If left to recover after logging, orangutans will gradually return to former concessions. But if the land is converted to monoculture planta...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of benefits under different land use scenarios in the Leuser Ecosystem
Net present value (NPV) is in millions of USD over a 30-year period (2000-2030) at a 4% discount rate. The NPV for local communities under a deforestation scenario would be 3,132 million USD and under a conservation scen...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population growth in North Sumatra and Aceh 1920-2008
Overall population growth in the region has been very rapid during the past nine decades. In 1920, the human populations of Aceh and North Sumatra provinces were 736,348 and 1,961,678, respectively (Volkstelling 1922). B...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest status
Most Sumatran orangutan habitat is protected by Indonesian law. The government has created a very comprehensive system of functional forest categories, and institutions responsible for managing its forests. Some areas re...
01 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Plantation concessions
Oil palm plantations depend on the microclimate conditions generated by nearby forests, and the rivers emanating from orangutan habitat. Not all plantations concessions on the map have been cleared and planted yet. The m...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sites
Sumatran orangutan habitat is restricted to the westernmost tip of Indonesia. Boxes indicate the case study areas Tripa and Batang Toru. The case of Sumatran orangutan serves as a useful example to illustrate how the fat...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hydrogeology
Most of the Sumatran orangutan's forests inland play a key role in ensuring downstream freshwater supplies, since the non-alluvial inland areas of the region tend to have very little or no underlying groundwater resourc...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest loss from 1985-2007 for Sumatra
If only the most important orangutan habitat is examined – i.e. forest below 1,000 m – for the 1985-2007 period, the rate of loss was even higher, at 28% and 49% for Aceh and North Sumatra respectively. When only the mos...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Above-ground carbon-stock density changes
In Batang Toru, land use changes and deforestation led to an overall loss of around 10 tonnes of carbon per hectare between 1994 and 2009. Due to its exploitation for the cultivation of oil palm, the peat area of Tripa h...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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