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Millennium Ecosystem AssessmentMillennium Ecosystem Assessment
Since the inception of global assessments on ozone depletion and climate change, the global policy process has been better informed, and decision-makers are able to take more effective and timely decisions. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment followed in the footsteps of these assessments and was designed to meet the need for information about the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being. It sought in particular to strengthen the link between scientific knowledge and decision-making.
Available online at: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/
Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems (CWG) Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems (CWG)
The cell color indicates impact of each driver on biodiversity in each type of ecosystem over the past 50–100 years. High impact means that over the last century the particular driver has significantly altered biodiversity in that biome; low impact indicates that it has had little influence on biodiversity in the biome. The arrows indicate the trend in the driver. Horizontal arrows indicate a continuation of the current level of impact; diagonal ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Net change in components of human well-being between 2000 and 2050 Net change in components of human well-being between 2000 and 2050
Order from Strength, which focuses on reactive policies in a regionalized world, has the least favorable outcomes for human well-being, as the global distribution of ecosystem services and human resources that underpin human well-being are increasingly skewed. Wealthy populations generally meet most material needs but experience psychological unease.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Proportion of population with improved sanitation coverage in 2002 Proportion of population with improved sanitation coverage in 2002
Access to improved sanitation is estimated by the percentage of the population using the following sanitation facilities: connection to a public sewer, connection to a septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine (a portion of pit latrines are also considered unimproved sanitation), and ventilated improved pit latrine.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries
In most countries, the marketed values of ecosystems associated with timber and fuelwood production are less than one third of the total economic value, including non-marketed values such as carbon sequestration, watershed protection, and recreation.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades
In the case of forest cover change, the studies refer to the period 1980–2000 and are based on national statistics, remote sensing, and, to a limited degree, expert opinion. In the case of land cover change resulting from degradation in drylands (desertification), the period is unspecified but inferred to be within the last half-century, and the major study was entirely based on expert opinion, with associated low certainty. Change in cultivated ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Estimated total reactive nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere (wet and dry) in 1860, early 1990s, and projected for 2050 Estimated total reactive nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere (wet and dry) in 1860, early 1990s, and projected for 2050
Atmospheric deposition currently accounts for roughly 12% of the reactive nitrogen entering terrestrial and coastal marine ecosystems globally, although in some regions, atmospheric deposition accounts for a higher percentage (about 33% in the United States). (Note: the projection was included in the original study and is not based on MA scenarios.)
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of ecosystem services enhanced or degraded by 2050 Number of ecosystem services enhanced or degraded by 2050
100% degradation means that all the services in the category were degraded in 2050 compared with 2000, while 50% improvement could mean that three out of six services were enhanced and the rest were unchanged or that four out of six were enhanced and one was degraded. The total number of services evaluated for each category was six provisioning services, nine regulating services, and five cultural services.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services
The time scale of change refers to the time required for the effects of a perturbation of a process to be expressed. Inertia refers to the delay or slowness in the response of a system to factors altering their rate of change, including continuation of change in the system after the cause of that change has been removed.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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