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Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Since the inception of global assessments on ozone depletion and climate change, the global policy process has been better informed, and decision-makers are able to take more effective and timely decisions. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment followed in the footsteps of these assessments and was designed to meet the need for information about ...
Available online at: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/
Comparison of global river nitrogen export from natural ecosystems, agricultural systems, and sewage effluents, 1975 and 1990
Nutrient loading is projected to become an increasingly severe problem, particularly in developing countries. Nutrient loading already has major adverse effects on freshwater ecosystems and coastal regions in both indust...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Species extinction rates
Comparisons with the rate at which species have disappeared from the planet over a long period of Earth’s history indicate that humans have already increased extinctions levels dramatically. Projections suggest that this...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Collapse of Atlantic cod stocks off the East Coast of Newfoundland in 1992
From the late 1950s, offshore bottom trawlers began exploiting the deeper part of the stock, leading to a large catch increase and a strong decline in the underlying biomass. Internationally agreed quotas in the early 19...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changes in agricultural land (pasture and cropland)
For all developing countries over the period 1961–99, expansion of harvested land contributed only 29% to growth in crop production versus the contribution of increases in yields, which amounted to 71%; in sub-Saharan Af...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Urban, dryland, and polar systems
Urban systems are built environments with a high human density. For mapping purposes, the MA uses known human settlements with a population of 5,000 or more, with boundaries delineated by observing persistent night-time ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changes in economic structure for selected countries
While traditional natural resource sectors such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are still important in industrial-country economies, the relative economic and political significance of other sectors has grown as ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated global marine fish catch, 1950 -2001
Fishing production dramatically increase through the century peaking in late 1980s. At this time there were major declines in several fish populations in different areas of the world. The catch reported by governments is...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Local adaptations of Millenium Assessment (MA) conceptual framework
The MA framework was applied in a wide range of assessments at multiple scales. Particularly for the more local assessments, the framework needed to be adapted to better reflect the needs and concerns of local communitie...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework
International demand for timber may lead to a regional loss of forest cover, which increases flood magnitude along a local stretch of a river. Similarly, the interactions can take place across different time scales. Acti...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Reactive nitrogen on earth by human activity, with projection to 2050
The range of the natural rate of bacterial nitrogen fixation in natural terrestrial ecosystems (excluding fixation in agroecosystems) is shown for comparison. Human activity now produces approximately as much reactive ni...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being
There are many linkages between categories of ecosystem services and components of human well-being. They includes indications of the extent to which it is possible for socioeconomic factors to mediate the linkage. For e...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Sub-global assessments
Eighteen sub-global assessments were approved as components of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). These were not designed to provide a scientific sample of any feature of ecosystems or human well-being. Instead, t...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of flood events by continent and decade since 1950
Roughly 17% of all the urban land in the United States is located in the 100-year flood zone. Likewise, in Japan about 50% of the population lives on floodplains, which cover only 10% of the land area. In Bangladesh, the...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Unsustainable water withdrawals for irrigation
The imbalance in long-term water budgets necessitates diversion of surface water or the tapping of groundwater resources. The areas shown with moderate-to-high levels of unsustainable use occur over each continent and ar...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Decline in trophic level of fisheries catch since 1950
A trophic level of an organism is its position in a food chain. Levels are numbered according to how far particular organisms are along the chain from the primary producers, to herbivores, to predators, to carnivores or ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Relative changes in food supply (crops and livestock): industrial and developing countries
Over the past 40 years, globally, intensification of cultivated systems has been the primary source (almost 80%) of increased output. But some countries, predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa, have had persistently l...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Time series of intercepted continental runoff and large reservoir storage, 1900–2000
The years 1960–2000 have shown a rapid move toward flow stabilization, which has slowed recently in some parts of the world due to the growing social, economic, and environmental concerns surrounding large hydraulic engi...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Proportion of population with improved drinking water supply in 2002
Access to improved drinking water is estimated by the percentage of the population using the following drinking water sources: household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, or ra...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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