HomeAboutActivitiesMapsPhotosPublicationsNews
 
Home >> Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

Collection: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

Millennium Ecosystem AssessmentMillennium Ecosystem Assessment
Since the inception of global assessments on ozone depletion and climate change, the global policy process has been better informed, and decision-makers are able to take more effective and timely decisions. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment followed in the footsteps of these assessments and was designed to meet the need for information about the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being. It sought in particular to strengthen the link between scientific knowledge and decision-making.
Available online at: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/
Comparison of global river nitrogen export from natural ecosystems, agricultural systems, and sewage effluents, 1975 and 1990 Comparison of global river nitrogen export from natural ecosystems, agricultural systems, and sewage effluents, 1975 and 1990
Nutrient loading is projected to become an increasingly severe problem, particularly in developing countries. Nutrient loading already has major adverse effects on freshwater ecosystems and coastal regions in both industrial and developing countries.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Species extinction rates Species extinction rates
Comparisons with the rate at which species have disappeared from the planet over a long period of Earth’s history indicate that humans have already increased extinctions levels dramatically. Projections suggest that this rate will take another big leap due to changes over the next 50 years. The bars represent the range of estimates in each case.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Collapse of Atlantic cod stocks off the East Coast of Newfoundland in 1992 Collapse of Atlantic cod stocks off the East Coast of Newfoundland in 1992
From the late 1950s, offshore bottom trawlers began exploiting the deeper part of the stock, leading to a large catch increase and a strong decline in the underlying biomass. Internationally agreed quotas in the early 1970s and, following the declaration by Canada of an Exclusive Fishing Zone in 1977, national quota systems ultimately failed to arrest and reverse the decline.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Changes in agricultural land (pasture and cropland) Changes in agricultural land (pasture and cropland)
For all developing countries over the period 1961–99, expansion of harvested land contributed only 29% to growth in crop production versus the contribution of increases in yields, which amounted to 71%; in sub-Saharan Africa, however, yield increases accounted for only 34% of growth in production.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Urban, dryland, and polar systems Urban, dryland, and polar systems
Urban systems are built environments with a high human density. For mapping purposes, the MA uses known human settlements with a population of 5,000 or more, with boundaries delineated by observing persistent night-time lights or by inferring areal extent in the cases where such observations are absent.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Changes in economic structure for selected countries Changes in economic structure for selected countries
While traditional natural resource sectors such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are still important in industrial-country economies, the relative economic and political significance of other sectors has grown as a result of the ongoing transition from agricultural to industrial and service economies.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Estimated global marine fish catch, 1950 -2001 Estimated global marine fish catch, 1950 -2001
Fishing production dramatically increase through the century peaking in late 1980s. At this time there were major declines in several fish populations in different areas of the world. The catch reported by governments is in some cases adjusted to correct for likely errors in data.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003 Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Local adaptations of Millenium Assessment (MA) conceptual framework Local adaptations of Millenium Assessment (MA) conceptual framework
The MA framework was applied in a wide range of assessments at multiple scales. Particularly for the more local assessments, the framework needed to be adapted to better reflect the needs and concerns of local communities.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework
International demand for timber may lead to a regional loss of forest cover, which increases flood magnitude along a local stretch of a river. Similarly, the interactions can take place across different time scales. Actions can be taken either to respond to negative changes or to enhance positive changes at almost all points in this framework.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Reactive nitrogen on earth by human activity, with projection to 2050 Reactive nitrogen on earth by human activity, with projection to 2050
The range of the natural rate of bacterial nitrogen fixation in natural terrestrial ecosystems (excluding fixation in agroecosystems) is shown for comparison. Human activity now produces approximately as much reactive nitrogen as natural processes do on the continents.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being Linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being
There are many linkages between categories of ecosystem services and components of human well-being. They includes indications of the extent to which it is possible for socioeconomic factors to mediate the linkage. For example, if it is possible to purchase a substitute for a degraded ecosystem service, then there is a high potential for mediation.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Sub-global assessments Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Sub-global assessments
Eighteen sub-global assessments were approved as components of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). These were not designed to provide a scientific sample of any feature of ecosystems or human well-being. Instead, the choice of assessment locations was determined by a combination of interest in undertaking the assessment, interest in using the findings, and availability of resources to undertake the assessment.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Number of flood events by continent and decade since 1950 Number of flood events by continent and decade since 1950
Roughly 17% of all the urban land in the United States is located in the 100-year flood zone. Likewise, in Japan about 50% of the population lives on floodplains, which cover only 10% of the land area. In Bangladesh, the percentage of floodprone areas is much higher and inundation of more than half of the country is not uncommon.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Unsustainable water withdrawals for irrigation Unsustainable water withdrawals for irrigation
The imbalance in long-term water budgets necessitates diversion of surface water or the tapping of groundwater resources. The areas shown with moderate-to-high levels of unsustainable use occur over each continent and are known to be areas of aquifer mining or major water transfer schemes.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Decline in trophic level of fisheries catch since 1950 Decline in trophic level of fisheries catch since 1950
A trophic level of an organism is its position in a food chain. Levels are numbered according to how far particular organisms are along the chain from the primary producers, to herbivores, to predators, to carnivores or top carnivores.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Relative changes in food supply (crops and livestock): industrial and developing countries Relative changes in food supply (crops and livestock): industrial and developing countries
Over the past 40 years, globally, intensification of cultivated systems has been the primary source (almost 80%) of increased output. But some countries, predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa, have had persistently low levels of productivity, and continue to rely on expansion of cultivated area.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Time series of intercepted continental runoff and large reservoir storage, 1900–2000 Time series of intercepted continental runoff and large reservoir storage, 1900–2000
The years 1960–2000 have shown a rapid move toward flow stabilization, which has slowed recently in some parts of the world due to the growing social, economic, and environmental concerns surrounding large hydraulic engineering works.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Changes in forest area Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of biomass energy.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Proportion of population with improved drinking water supply in 2002 Proportion of population with improved drinking water supply in 2002
Access to improved drinking water is estimated by the percentage of the population using the following drinking water sources: household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, or rainwater collection.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Previous | 1 2 3 | Next