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Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Since the inception of global assessments on ozone depletion and climate change, the global policy process has been better informed, and decision-makers are able to take more effective and timely decisions. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment followed in the footsteps of these assessments and was designed to meet the need for information about ...
Available online at: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/
Human population growth rates, 1990–2000, and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and biological productivity in 2000 in ecological systems
Millennium Assessment systems with the lowest net primary productivity and lowest GDP tended to have the highest population growth rates between 1990 and 2000. Urban, inland water, and marine systems are not included due...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Net national savings in 2001 adjusted for investments in human capital, natural resource depletion, and damage caused by pollution compared with standard net national savings measurements
Positive values for national savings (expressed as a percent of gross national income) reflect a gain in wealth for a nation. Standard measures do not incorporate investments in human capital (in standard national accoun...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades
In the case of forest cover change, the studies refer to the period 1980–2000 and are based on national statistics, remote sensing, and to a limited degree expert opinion. In the case of land cover change resulting from ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Contrast between contemporary and pre-disturbance transports of total nitrogen through inland aquatic systems resulting from anthropogenic acceleration of this nutrient cycle
While the peculiarities of individual pollutants, rivers, and governance define the specific character of water pollution, the general patterns observed for nitrogen are representative of anthropogenic changes to the tra...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Forest systems
Forest systems are lands dominated by trees; they are often used for timber, fuelwood, and non-wood forest products. The map shows areas with a canopy cover of at least 40% by woody plants taller than 5 meters.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Economic benefits under alternate management practices
In each case, the net benefits from the more sustainably managed ecosystem are greater than those from the converted ecosystem, even though the private (market) benefits would be greater from the converted ecosystem.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total carbon market value per year
The total value of the carbon market for 2003 topped $300 million. And, depending on international regulation, some observers project that it will increase to $10–40 billion by 2010. Markets are also being created for mo...
01 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Growth in number of marine species introductions
Number of new records of established non-native invertebrate and algal species reported in marine waters of North America, shown by date of first record, and number of new records of non-native marine plant species repor...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Inland water and mountain systems
Inland water systems are permanent water bodies inland from the coastal zone and areas whose properties and use are dominated by the permanent, seasonal, or intermittent occurrence of flooded conditions. Inland waters in...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Contribution of ecosystems to historical radiative forcing and current greenhouse gas emissions
Radiative forcing caused by changes in atmospheric composition, alteration in land surface reflectance (albedo), and variation in the output of the sun for the year 2000 relative to conditions in 1750.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trend in mean depth of catch since 1950
Fisheries catches increasingly originate from deep areas. Over the years due to depletion in fish stocks the fishing industry has resorted to fishing at greater depths and increasing the damage to fish stocks and the oce...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World population scenarios
Some factors (such as global population growth) will begin to decline in importance and others (distribution of people, climate change, and changes to nutrient cycles) will gain more importance in the near future.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Conversion of terrestrial biomes
It is not possible to estimate accurately the extent of different biomes prior to significant human impact, but it is possible to determine the “potential” area of biomes based on soil and climatic conditions.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Extent of cultivated systems, 2000
More land was converted to cropland in the 30 years after 1950 than in the 150 years between 1700 and 1850. Cultivated systems (areas where at least 30% of the landscape is in croplands,shifting cultivation, confined liv...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum of gross va...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water withdrawals in 2050
Current patterns of human use of water are unsustainable. From 5% to possibly 25% of global freshwater use exceeds longterm accessible supplies and is met through engineered water transfers or the overdraft of groundwate...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Marine, coastal, and island systems
Marine systems are the world’s oceans. For mapping purposes, the map shows ocean areas where the depth is greater than 50 meters. Global fishery catches from marine systems peaked in the late 1980s and are now declining ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global production, prices, and undernourishment
Food production more than doubled (an increase of over 160%) from 1961 to 2003. Over this period, production of cereals—the major energy component of human diets—has increased almost two and a half times, beef and sheep ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of major wild fires by continent and decade since 1950
Within industrial countries, the area burned by fires is declining but the number of major fires is increasing. In the United States, for example, the area burned has declined by more than 90% since 1930, while in Sweden...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Number of undernourished children projected in 2050
Food security is likely to remain out of reach for many people. Child malnutrition will be difficult to eradicate even by 2050 (low to medium certainty) and is projected to increase in some regions in some Millennium Ass...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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