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Collection: Marine Litter Vital Graphics

Marine Litter Vital Graphics
Marine Litter Vital Graphics
Every year, the sum of humanity’s knowledge increases exponentially. And as we learn more, we also learn there is much we still don’t know. Plastic litter in our oceans is one area where we need to learn more, and we need to learn it quickly. That’s one of the main messages in Marine Litter Vital Graphics. Another important message is that we a ...
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/marine-litter
Most common and visible litter items in beaches
Based on the items most often collected on beaches, it is commonly claimed that the majority (80 per cent) of marine litter is linked to land-based sources. The top ten most collected items are remnants of consumer produ...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plasticized animal species - Entangled
Entanglement in debris is a more obvious and proven risk to marine life than other impacts of litter, which are still subject to debate. More than 30,000 cases of entanglement (in 243 species) have been reported (G...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plasticized animal species - Ingestion
Apart from the physical risk from plastic, there is also concern that marine organisms are at risk from the ingestion of hazardous chemicals that are in the plastic or adsorbed on its surface. The ability of plastic part...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Are most of the plastics produced still around?
Marine litter (or debris) is waste created by humans that has been discharged into the coastal or marine environment. It is defined as “any anthropogenic, manufactured, or processed solid material (regardless of size) di...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Marine plastic garbage clean up efforts
The costs of action will vary depending on where in the value chain and on what waste the measures are focused, which sectors and products they target, and the location and scale of the marine litter being addressed. Whi...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Preventing is better than cleaning up
Avoiding environmental pollution is a better and cheaper option than cleaning up or mitigating the impact of pollution. There are many ways to tackle the problem of marine plastic debris and microplastics – from preven...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
What countries are doing to combat litter What countries are doing to combat litter
Thorough implementation of existing legislation and policies on the release of litter, on land and at sea, helps to reduce marine debris at the source. There is already a wealth of environmental regulatory instruments ad...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Regional action plans on marine litter Regional action plans on marine litter
The Regional Seas Conventions and Action Plans are instrumental in supporting the implementation of the GPA at regional levels and have developed, or are in the process of developing, regional sea action plans on marine ...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Marine plastics global policy timeline
Due to the varied sources, pathways and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment, there is a myriad of environmental regulations which have a bearing on how to address this problem. These range from gl...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Natural processes aecting the distribution and fate of plastics
In addition to physical redistribution linked to wind, waves, and surface and deep currents, a whole other suite of biological and mechanical processes influences the distribution of plastic debris and microplastics in...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Thermohaline circulation Thermohaline circulation
Plastic debris does not remain on the surface forever. Eventually it starts to sink. Cold, dense water sinks in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean, driving what is often referred to as the ocean conveyor belt or t...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic currents
Discarded plastic moving around the ocean – on the surface, in the water column and on the sea floor – sometimes comes to rest. The geographical distribution of marine plastic debris is strongly influenced by the entry p...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How much plastic is estimated to be in the oceans and where it may be
Debris reaching the marine environment accumulates in different “storage compartments,” including coastal beaches, mangroves, wetlands and deltas, the water column and the sea floor. In the water column, debris can b...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic input into the oceans
Despite knowledge of the role played by rivers, there are no global estimates of the amount of man-made debris reaching the ocean at river mouths. Therefore, of the estimated 4.8 to 12.7 million tonnes of litter which en...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic input from municipal solid waste and wastewater
Debris released by human activity on land can be washed by surface runoff or blown by wind into rivers and other watercourses and ultimately be transported into the ocean. Debris can also be directly dumped or dischar...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Pathways and uxes of plastics into the oceans
All material that erodes and washes off the land will end up in the marine environment. This includes solid materials that constitute marine litter. Understanding the role and importance of the different pathways is cruc...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How microplastics are generated
Due to its size and variety of sources, the characterization of microplastic is even more complex than for large plastic debris. There are two types of microplastics particles: those which have been intentionally made (p...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
An example of how microplastics could end up on a consumer's plate
The ingestion of marine debris carrying these concentrated toxins has potential to bioaccumulate up the food chain and enter the human diet. However, although there is evidence of the harmful impacts of these chemicals o...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
The impact of plastic pollution on oceans is at least $8 bn per year
Marine plastic debris and microplastics have substantial negative effects on marine ecosystems. This in turn affects ecosystem services, the economic activities relying on those services for revenue generation, sustainab...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic bioaccumulation in the food web
Plastic debris can have similar size characteristics to sediment and suspended particulate matter and can be ingested by filter feeding or sediment ingesting organisms. Lugworms, amphipods and barnacles have all been s...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
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