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IAASTD - International assessment of agricultural science and technology for developmentIAASTD - International assessment of agricultural science and technology for development
The International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) coincides with the widespread realization that despite significant scientific and technological achievements in our ability to increase agricultural productivity, we have been less attentive to some of the unintended social and ecological consequences of our achievements. We are now in a good position to reflect on these consequences and to outline various policy options to meet the challenges ahead, perhaps best characterized as the need for food and livelihood security under increasingly constrained environmental conditions from within and outside the realm of agriculture and globalized economic systems.
Price change of selected retail foodstuffs and the percentage of retail value paid to primary Price change of selected retail foodstuffs and the percentage of retail value paid to primary
The elimination or the substantial reduction of subsidies and protectionism in industrialized countries, especially for commodities in which developing countries compete such as sugar, groundnuts and cotton is important for small-scale farm sectors around the world. Similarly, plurilateral commitments from major exporting countries to ensure that there is no trade at prices below the full cost of production have been put forward as an option to d...
03 Jan 2008 - by Ketill Berger
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Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural) Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural)
Gender equity is an important part of social equity. Women and men, who often have different roles and responsibilities in households and food production, often have different relationships to the various benefits derived from Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and innovations.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arenda
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World's top seed companies World's top seed companies
The top ten seed companies have incomes at over $10 billion USD. Monsanto and Dupont/Pioneer lead the way with over 50% of seed sales in the world. All of the top ten companies are located in the U.S.A, Japan or Europe.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Counting women’s labor Counting women’s labor
Besides housekeeping and child rearing, women and girls are usually responsible for fetching water and fuel wood. Women and girls tend to perform tasks such as planting, transplanting, hand weeding, harvesting, picking fruit and vegetables, small livestock rearing, and post-harvest operations such as threshing, seed selection, and storage, while mechanized work (preparing the land, irrigation, mechanical harvesting, and marketing) is generally a ...
03 Jan 2008 - by Ketill Berger
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Women quantify lack of control over work resources Women quantify lack of control over work resources
Poor rural infrastructure such as the lack of clean water supply, electricity or fuel increases women’s work load and limits their availability for professional training, childcare and income generation. The lack of access to storage facilities and roads contributes to high food costs and low selling prices.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Andean cosmovision The Andean cosmovision
The local Pacha (mother earth) is a micro-cosmos, a representation of the cosmos at large. It is animated, sacred, consubstantial, immanent, diverse, variable, and harmonious. Within the local Pacha there is the Ayllu (Community in Quechuan and Aymaran languages). The Ayllu is comprised of three communities: people, nature, spirits.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agricultural water withdrawals as proportion of total water withdrawals Agricultural water withdrawals as proportion of total water withdrawals
Agriculture already consumes 70% of all global freshwater withdrawn worldwide and has depleted soil nutrients, resulting in N, P and K deficiencies covering 59%, 85%, and 90% of harvested area respectively in the year 2000 coupled with a 1,136 million Mg yr loss of total global production.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agricultural liberalization: Developing country winners and losers under Doha Scenario for agriculture (scenario 1) Agricultural liberalization: Developing country winners and losers under Doha Scenario for agriculture (scenario 1)
Under various new scenarios for world agricultural trade and development many of the world's regions will be negatively affected. Under the Doha Scenario China would fair the worst with many developing nations running into a negative scenario.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global legislation concerning and global burden of, infectious animal diseases Global legislation concerning and global burden of, infectious animal diseases
Serious socioeconomic impacts can arise when diseases spread widely within human or animal populations (such as H5N1), or when they spill over from animal reservoirs to human hosts; farming intensification often increases these risks. Even small-scale animal disease outbreaks can have major economic impacts in pastoral communities.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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A multifunctional perspective of agriculture A multifunctional perspective of agriculture
In IAASTD, multifunctionality is used solely to express the inescapable interconnectedness of agriculture’s different roles and functions. The concept of multifunctionality recognizes agriculture as a multi-output activity producing not only commodities (food, fodder, fibers and biofuels), but also non-commodity outputs such as ecosystem services, landscape amenities and cultural heritages.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture
Agricultural trade offers opportunities for developing countries to benefit from larger scale production for global markets, acquire some commodities cheaper than would be possible through domestic production, and gain access to new forms of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and equipment (e.g. fertilizers, HYV seeds, pump sets, etc.). Projections for the Doha round of trade negotitations show, though, that for the agricultura...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Areas of physical and economic water scarcity Areas of physical and economic water scarcity
Under current water use practices, increases in population and changes in diet are projected to increase water consumption in food and fiber production by 70-90%. If demands for biomass energy increase, this may aggravate the problem. In addition, sectoral competition for water resources will intensify, further exacerbating the stress on developing country producers.
03 Jan 2008 - by Unknown
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Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000 Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000
During a 20 year period between 1981 to 2000 the amount of agricultural research by developing nations has outgrown those of higher income countries. The increase has been steady throughout the entire period as it is in the Asia Pacific region.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Land area: Conventional and genetically modified crops Land area: Conventional and genetically modified crops
While many regions are actively experimenting with GMOs at a small scale, the highly concentrated cultivation of GM crops in a few countries (nearly three-fourths in only the US and Argentina, with 90% in the four countries including Brazil and Canada) is also interpreted as an indication of a modest uptake rate. GM crop cultivation may have increased by double digit rates for the past 10 years, but over 93% of cultivated land still supports conv...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected impact of climate change Projected impact of climate change
Future climate change and projected impacts: Increased growth and yield rates due to higher levels of carbon dioxide and temperatures could result in longer growing seasons. For example, in mid to high latitude regions, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report moderate local increases in temperature (1-2ºC) can have small beneficial impacts on crop yields.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in real commodity prices Trends in real commodity prices
Agriculture is a fundamental instrument for sustainable development; about 70% of the world’s poor are rural and most are involved in farming. National policy needs to arrive at a balance between a higher prices which can benefit producers and lead to a more vibrant rural economy, and lower prices, which, although volatile on the international market, can improve food access for poor consumers.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Market concentration Market concentration
Agricultural trade is increasingly organized in global chains, dominated by a few large transnational buyers (trading companies, agrifood processors and companies involved in production of commodities). In these globalized chains primary producers often capture only a fraction of the international price of a trade commodity, so the poverty reduction and rural development effects of integration in global supply chains have been far less than optim...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop
Ensuring policy space for all these countries to maintain prices for crops that are important to food security and rural livelihoods is essential. Agricultural policies in industrialized countries, including export subsidies, have reduced commodity prices and thus food import costs; however this has undermined the development of the agricultural sector in developing countries, and thus agriculture’s significant potential growth multiplier for the...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land use Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land use
Changes in land use have negatively affected the net ability of ecosystems to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. For instance, the carbon rich grasslands and forests in temperate zones have been replaced by crops with much lower capacity to sequester carbon.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006 Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006
Some regions report increases in some crops and positive financial returns have been reported for genetically modified cotton in studies including South Africa, Argentina, China, India and Mexico. In contrast, the US and Argentina may have slight yield declines in soybeans, and also for maize in the US. Studies on GMOs have also shown the potential for decreased insecticide use, while others show increasing herbicide use.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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