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IAASTD - International assessment of agricultural science and technology for development
IAASTD - International assessment of agricultural science and technology for development
The International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) coincides with the widespread realization that despite significant scientific and technological achievements in our ability to increase agricultural productivity, we have been less attentive to some of the unintended social and ecological consequences o ...
Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) has the capacity to improve livelihoods, although effects have varied by region and social group. The ability to access and benefit from AKST is uneven, with industri...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in public...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fifty million climate refugees by 2010
Today we find a world of asymmetric development, unsustainable natural resource use, and continued rural and urban poverty. There is general agreement about the current global environmental and development crisis. It is ...
03 Jan 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
Measures of Poverty: Hunger Density
Population Density of Children Age 0-5 Underweight (per square kilometer). Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CD...
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Latin America
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There are serious problems of chi...
03 Jan 2008 - by Copyright 2005. The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action
The general model has been to continuously innovate, reduce farm gate prices and externalize costs. This model drove the phenomenal achievements of AKST in industrial countries after WWII and the spread of the Green Revo...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Measures of Poverty: Child Malnutrition - Asia
Children are defined as underweight if their weight-for-age z-scores are more than two standard deviations (2 SD) below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. There is a high incidence of of m...
03 Jan 2008 - by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
Global soil degradation
In many parts of the world natural resources have been treated as though unlimited, and totally resilient to human exploitation. This perception has exacerbated the conflicting agricultural demands on natural capital, as...
03 Jan 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The percentage of agricultural work carried out by women compared with the percentage of female extension staff in selected African countries
Only 15% of the world’s agricultural public sector extension agents are women [Global 3]. Women's access to extension is limited by lack of access to membership in rural organizations which often channel or provide train...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production
Production gains are attributed to improved crop varieties and livestock, soil management, improved access to resources (nutrients and water), infrastructure developments, policy initiatives, microfinance, education, bet...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Poorest countries lose income under all Doha scenarios
There are major distributional impacts among countries and within countries that in many cases have not been favorable for small-scale farmers and rural livelihoods. The poorest developing countries are net losers under ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Counting female-headed households
In SSA women make up two-thirds of those infected with HIV/AIDS. This adds additional burdens for women as producers of food and as family caretakers. Labor loss due to illness, need to care for family members and paid e...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by source, 2004
Overall, agriculture (cropping and livestock) contributes 13.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions mostly through emissions of methane and nitrous oxide (about 47% and 58% of total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Monsanto Corporation's global vegetable seed market share
Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Biotechnology and modern biotechnology defined
Modern biotechnology is a term adopted by international convention to refer to biotechnological techniques for the manipulation of genetic material and the fusion of cells beyond normal breeding barriers. The most obviou...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total agricultural output
Substantial gains in agricultural productivity over the past 50 years have reduced rates of hunger and malnutrition, improved the health and livelihoods of many millions of people and stimulated economic growth in numero...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Are
Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture
There is a need to develop agricultural policies that both reduce emissions and allow adaptation to climate change that are closer to carbon-neutral, minimize trace gas emissions and reduce natural capital degradation. I...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changes in available water in Africa: end of 20th and 21st centuries
Salinization affects about 10% of the world’s irrigated land, while the loss of biodiversity and its associated agroecological functions (estimated to provide economic benefits of US$ 1,542 billion per year) adversely af...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Agricultural labor as share of total labor
As the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increases the percentage of agricultural labour as the entire labour of a country. East Africa has the highest levels of agricultural labour as Japan and the U.S.A. have the lowest lev...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
From biomass to energy consumption
As biomass feedstocks are widely available, bioenergy offers an attractive complement to fossil fuels and thus has potential to alleviate concerns of a geopolitical and energy security nature. However, only a small part ...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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