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Green Economy in a Blue World - Full ReportGreen Economy in a Blue World - Full Report
The world’s oceans and coasts – the Blue World – are the cornucopia for humanity. They provide us with food, oxygen and livelihoods. Most of the world’s international trade travels by sea. Sea floors yield important minerals, sand and gravel. Technology is beginning to tap new sources of energy from ocean tides, waves and wind. Coastal habitats provide firewood, fibres and other resources, are natural carbon sinks and protect from storms and surges. Ocean views have been shown to improve people’s wellbeing and are an important reason homes near the sea have higher value. Tourism that relies on clean beaches, safe water and abundant marine wildlife provides many ocean communities with jobs, income and foreign exchange. Ocean recreation offers both market and non-market benefits to residents and visitors of the coasts.
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/green-economy-blue-world/
Tourism in the Mediterranean countries Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted some 250 million visitors in 2008. In France, tourism provides 43 per cent of jobs in coastal regions, generating more revenue than fishing or shipping. In the UK, tourism to the coast is worth £110 billion (approximately US$171 ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Estimated potential yearly whale watching revenue Estimated potential yearly whale watching revenue
The value of marine recreational activities was calculated by Cisneros-Montemayor & Sumaila (2010). A database of reported expenditure on marine recreational activities was compiled for 144 coastal countries, with the authors estimating that in 2003, nearly 60 million recreational anglers around the world generated a total of about US$40 billion in expenditure, supporting over 950 000 jobs. Hoyt (2001) estimated that over 13 million people worldw...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tourism, a source for economy and employment Tourism, a source for economy and employment
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted some 250 million visitors in 2008. In France, tourism provides 43 per cent of jobs in coastal regions, generating more revenue than fishing or shipping. In the UK, tourism to the coast is worth £110 billion (approximately US$171 ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Blue flags up! Blue flags up!
Marine environments are key assets of global tourism, and their preservation is ultimately a precondition for the survival of marine and coastal tourism.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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The sanitation ladder The sanitation ladder
Per capita costs of sewage treatment go up roughly tenfold from basic latrines to tertiary treatment of collected waste water.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions
The figure shows the amounts of nitrogen exported by rivers per year and provides a forecast for the future.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans
Over the last 20 years, significant data and experience in understanding and addressing the sectoral drivers, pressures, sources, impacts and response to reactive nitrogen have been gathered and progress made in trying to address these issues. The key sectors that are involved include the agriculture, waste-water management, and fertilizer production sectors. As shown in the figure for the year 2000, models indicate that globally, roughly equal a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Unbalancing the cycle Unbalancing the cycle
The figure compares the flow of nitrogen between the the years 1890 and 1990.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Dead zones and fertilizers Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufactured nitrogen fertilizer products has been global environment problems associated with excess nutrients, specifically the problems of eutrophication, coastal hypoxic zones and nitrate contaminated groundwater. Tracing the format...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Production of nitrogen Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). Based on the figures from Dawson and Hilton (2011), over 2 billion tonnes of reactive nitrogen was manufactured in that period. The enormous increase in artificial fertilizer production catalyzed by the Haber-Bosch process has a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Development in Offshore wind capacity Development in Offshore wind capacity
Offshore wind, currently around 3 000 MW, has mainly been concentrated in northern European countries, around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Europe’s leadership is primarily attributed to public policy and a thriving wind energy industry. EU legislation mandates significant reductions of carbon emission, requiring, among other measures, greater usage of renewable energy resources. As of 2011, around 69 wind farms were installed or under const...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Spots of potential for wave energy harvest Spots of potential for wave energy harvest
Wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the ocean surface. Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, making it more economically feasible to harness in some parts than in others, hence making wave energy a region-specific energy source. For example, strong winds variations are observed within the band between 30 and 60 degrees latitude, and circumpolar storms near the southern...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Looking further offshore and in deeper waters Looking further offshore and in deeper waters
The high capital cost of offshore foundations bounds offshore wind energy to near shore locations. Most of the capacity has been installed in relatively shallow waters (under 20 m deep) no more than 20 km from the coast in order to minimize the extra costs of foundations and sea cables (EWEA, 2009). Most of the recently added capacity is installed in water depths of up 40 metres, as far as 60 kilometres off the coast, as shown in the figure.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development
In the early stages of development, public financial support is needed, both for R&D and then later to encourage deployment (see sections above for examples). Later, private finance can be mobilized for near-competitive technologies and demonstration projects. Public finance mechanisms can encourage the private sector to complement rather than to substitute investment (UNEP, 2011) as illustrated in the figure. As the figure shows, in the late...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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World cargo shipping lanes World cargo shipping lanes
The international shipping industry is responsible for the carriage of about 90 per cent of world trade by volume and is vital to the functioning of the global economy. Without shipping, intercontinental trade, the bulk transport of raw materials and the import/export of affordable food and goods would simply not be possible (ICS, 2012).
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Oil spills from 1970 to 2010 Oil spills from 1970 to 2010
The most obvious potential source of serious pollution from ships is the discharge of oil (cargoes or bunkers) as a result of ship losses. However, there has been a dramatic reduction in the number of major oil spills over the last four decades, including since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Transportation emission Transportation emission
More recently, however, the focus of the industry and its regulators – encouraged by far greater awareness of the importance of environmental issues amongst all stakeholders – has also been on the wider potential impacts which shipping can have on the environment. In particular, there was awareness of the need to address the impact on local ecosystems of foreign microorganisms imported in ships’ ballast water; the danger to public health and the ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Projected annual CO2 emissions from the shipping sector Projected annual CO2 emissions from the shipping sector
In July 2011, international shipping became the first industrial sector to adopt binding international rules for the adoption of technical measures to reduce CO2 emissions. These technical measures were adopted by IMO as amendments to MARPOL Annex VI which is expected to enter into force in 2013.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills
The ultimate goal of the shipping industry and its regulators is zero accidents and zero pollution. Although these goals have not yet been fully achieved, considerable progress has been made, especially in the context of pollution from ships, an achievement all the more impressive when it is considered that the total amount of seaborne trade, measured in tonne-miles, has almost doubled since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 – from 17.54 billion tonne...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Estimated ecosystem services value Estimated ecosystem services value
Marine ecosystem services have substantial economic value. While exact figures are still debated, attempts to estimate the value of coastal ecosystem services have found such values to be on the order of trillions of US dollars annually (Costanza, et al., 1997). Nearly three-quarters of this value resides in coastal zones (Martínez, et al., 2007). These ecosystem services offer a renewable opportunity to meet basic human needs, support a healthy...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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