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Global Outlook for Ice and Snow
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow
Global outlook for ice & snow provides an up-to-date, concise review of the state of the environment and the trends in ice and snow-covered regions (cryosphere) of the world. It features case studies, illustrations, graphics and maps and serves as an educational and reference publication. With a broad target audience that includes decision- ...
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/geo-ice-snow/
Antarctica, topographic map
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered by a permanent continental ice sheet. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West A...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Cryosphere, world map
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of mi...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea ice concentration change over the 21st century as projected by climate models
The data are taken from climate model experiments of 12 (out of 24) different models that were conducted for the IPCC Assessment Report 4 using the SRES A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plots on the right show chang...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic temperatures in the 20th century, modeled and observed
Observed Arctic winter land temperatures and IPCC model recreations for the 20th century. Note that although these model runs are able to capture the range of Arctic warm and cold periods, the timing of the peaks varies,...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected increase (days) of the navigation season through the Northern Sea Route as an average of 5 ACIA model projections
The Northern Sea Route (NSR) is a seasonally ice-covered marine shipping lane along the Russian coasts, from Novaya Zemlya in the west to the Bering Strait in the east. The NSR is administered by the Russian Ministry of ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Variations in snow depth and ice cover, alpine lake at Hardangervidda plateau, Norway
Climate warming means that lowland lakes typically are experiencing longer ice-free periods, promoting greater biological productivity. However, despite this warming trend, biological productivity may be reduced, at leas...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982 and 2008
The red line indicates the median minimum extent of the ice cover for the period 1979–2000. This figure compares the Arctic sea ice extent in September for the years 1982 (the record maximum since 1979) and 2008. The ice...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice avalanches of the Nevados Huascarán in Peru
Many disasters have been recorded from the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca. The 1962 and 1970 events originating from Glaciar 511 on the Nevados Huascarán, the highest peak of which is at 6768 m above sea level in the ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These r...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Arctic sea-ice extent in March (maximum) and September (minimum) in the time period of 1979–2006
For the Northern Hemisphere (primarily the Arctic), observations using remote sensing technologies have been used to measure the extent and the to assess the development. Despite considerable year-to-year variability, si...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mountain permafrost patterns and temperature gradients
Steep terrain and strong variability in surface temperatures are typical of mountain permafrost. The cross section in the foreground shows the complex distribution of subsurface temperatures characteristic of mountains, ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Stephan Gruber, University of Zürich. Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arednal
Arctic delta pond ecosystems, seasonal flooding and adaptation
The physical development and ecosystem health of river deltas in cold regions are strongly controlled by ice processes and thus are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change. As an example, the photograph shows...
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in snow-covered area for the Northern Hemisphere 1922-2005
Observations of snow-covered area for the Northern Hemisphere show a significant development in the later 20th century, with a reduction of the area covered by snow in the spring (March-April) from some 38 million km2 in...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Glaciers monitored through the World Glacier Monitoring Service
Worldwide collection of information about ongoing glacier changes was initiated in 1894 with the foundation of the International Glacier Commission at the 6th International Geological Congress in Zurich, Switzerland. Tod...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Monthly average sea ice extent globally and in both hemispheres (radial)
In the Arctic, winter sea ice extends over an area of approximately 15 million km2 at its peak in March and up to 7 million km2 in September, at the end of the summer melt season. Corresponding numbers for the Southern O...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in permafrost (Northern Hemisphere)
Modelled permafrost temperatures (mean annual temperature at the permafrost surface) for the Northern Hemisphere (Arctic), derived by applying climate conditions to a spatially distributed permafrost model. (a) Present-d...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in spring temperatures and ice break-up dates in Canada
In Canada, recent evidence indicates a shortening of the freshwater-ice season over much of the country with the reduction being mainly attributable to earlier break ups. These trends match those in surface air temperatu...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice
There are major regional differences for the Arctic sea ice, with the strongest decline in ice extent observed for the Greenland Sea (10.6 per cent per decade). The smallest decreases of annual mean sea ice extent were f...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska
There has been a general increase in permafrost temperatures during the last several decades in Alaska, northwest Canada, Siberia, and northern Europe. Permafrost temperature records have been obtained uninterrupted for ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Caucasus ice-rock avalanche in Russian Republic of North Ossetia
An ice-rock avalanche in the Kazbek region sheared off almost the entire Kolka Glacier and devastated the Genaldon valley. The satellite images show the region before (July 22, 2001) and after (October 6, 2002) the ice-r...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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