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Global Outlook for Ice and Snow
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow
Global outlook for ice & snow provides an up-to-date, concise review of the state of the environment and the trends in ice and snow-covered regions (cryosphere) of the world. It features case studies, illustrations, graphics and maps and serves as an educational and reference publication. With a broad target audience that includes decision- ...
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/geo-ice-snow/
Trends in permafrost temperatures and active-layer thickness, Northern Tien Shan mountains
Mountain permafrost in Central Asia occupies approximately 3.5 million square kilometers and makes up about 15 per cent of the total permafrost area in the Northern Hemisphere. The climatic variations during the 20th ce...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Cryosphere, components and world maps
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of mi...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Albedo of basic thick sea ice surface types
The albedo for different surface conditions on the sea ice range widely, from roughly 85 per cent of radiation reflected for snow-covered ice to 7 per cent for open water. These two surfaces cover the range from the larg...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in the age of ice on the Arctic Ocean, comparing September ice ages in 1988, 1990, 2001 and 2005
The age of sea ice in the Arctic is changing, and not only the extent and concentrations. Studies show that in recent years there is a higher proportion of younger ice to older ice than was observed in the late 1980s. Th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Melting ice on Mount Kilimanjaro, East Africa
Close to 50 per cent of the glaciers in Africa, on the Rwenzori Mountains, Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro have disappeared, while larger glaciers – particularly on Kilimanjaro – have been fragmented. Changes in glacier area...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected reduction in snow 2080-2100
Using one specific climate change model (ECHAM5) and the SRES A2 emission scenario (run 2) the projected loss of snow amounts to decreases of 60–80 per cent in monthly maximum snow water equivalent over most middle latit...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice-albedo feedback process
In spring, the ice is snow-covered and there is very little open water. Most sunlight is reflected, but some is absorbed. This absorbed sunlight leads to melting, which in turn reduces the ice albedo and increases the am...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Shrinking of Fedchenko Glacier in the Pamirs of Tajikistan
Significant loss of glaciers in Central Asia began around the 1930s, and become more dramatic in the second half of the 20th century and continue into the 21st century. Glacier area was reduced in the Tien Shan and in th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in spring snow cover duration for the Northern Hemisphere, 1970-2004
Examination of regional trends in spring snow-cover duration from 1969–2003 using NOAA snow-cover data shows the western United States to be among the regions with the strongest decreases. This supports results from stud...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Glacier shrinking on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic
A new glacier inventory based on satellite data shows that the glacier cover reduced by about 22 per cent between the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent and 2000. Changes in glacier area and volume are being used as ind...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Arctic temperature, 1880-2006
A history of Arctic land temperature anomalies from 1880 through 2006 is shown in this figure. The zero line represents the average temperature for 1961–1990. In the late 1800s the Arctic was relatively cold, although t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water towers of Asia - glaciers, water and population in the greater Himalayas-Hindu Kush-Tien Shan-Tibet region
The Himalayas–Hindu Kush, Kunlun Shan, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges function as water towers, providing water to people through much of Asia. The glacier-fed rivers originating from the Himalaya mountain ranges su...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Glacier front variations in the European Alps
Large Alpine glaciers have retreated continuously since the mid- 19th century, whereas steep mid-sized glaciers reacted with readvances in the 1890s, 1920s and between the 1970s and 1980s due to the somewhat cooler and w...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Antarctic tourism
Antarctic annual sea-ice extent is projected to decrease by 25 per cent by 2100, and this will bring easier access to the Antarctic continent by ship. This is likely to affect not only research, which is a main activity ...
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes
Climate models project that summer sea ice in the Arctic Basin will retreat further and further away from most Arctic landmasses, opening new shipping routes and extending the navigation season in the Northern Sea Route ...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in sea level, 1870-2006
Coastal and island tide-gauge data show that sea level rose by just under 20 cm between 1870 and 2001, with an average rise of 1.7 mm per year during the 20th century and with an increase in the rate of rise over this pe...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Schematic diagram of glacier, permafrost and forest limits as a function of mean annual air temperature and average annual precipitation
Glaciers and ice caps form around the world where snow deposited during the cold/humid season does not entirely melt during warm/dry times. This seasonal snow gradually becomes denser and transforms into perennial firn (...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice sheets, schematic illustration for Greenland and Antarctica
The ice cover in Greenland and Antarctica has two components – thick, grounded, inland ice that rests on a more or less solid bed, and thinner floating ice shelves and glacier tongues. An ice sheet is actually a giant gl...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected sea-level rise for the 21st century
The projected range of global averaged sea-level rise from the IPCC 2001 Assessment Report for the period 1990 to 2100 is shown by the lines and shading. The updated AR4 IPCC projections made are shown by the bars plotte...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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