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Global Outlook for Ice and Snow
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow
Global outlook for ice & snow provides an up-to-date, concise review of the state of the environment and the trends in ice and snow-covered regions (cryosphere) of the world. It features case studies, illustrations, graphics and maps and serves as an educational and reference publication. With a broad target audience that includes decision- ...
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/geo-ice-snow/
Jakobshavn Isbrae and ice fjord, showing locations of the calving ice front in years from 1851 to 2006, together with flow velocity observations
The glacier extends through the Illulisat Icefjord, surrounded by mountains. Icebergs calve off from the main glacier, pile up and block the fjord before being released into Qeqertarsuup Tunua (Disko) Bay and Davis Strai...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Maps of average sea ice extent in the Arctic summer (September) and winter (March), and in the Antarctic summer (February) and winter (September)
Passive microwave sensors on satellites have monitored the extent of the sea ice cover since 19782. This technique is widely used to investigate fluctuations in ice extent over the seasons, variability between years, and...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses
The lines represent IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) based on different world views. The differences in impacts between the SRES scenarios for the same amount of sea-level rise and protection response re...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback
Feedback refers to the modification of a process by changes resulting from the process itself. Positive feedbacks accelerate the process, while negative feedbacks slow it down. Part of the uncertainty around future clima...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in permafrost temperatures in the central and northern Mackenzie Valley, 1984-2006
Temperature monitoring in Canada indicates a warming of shallow permafrost over the last two to three decades. Since the mid-1980s, shallow permafrost (upper 20-30 m) has generally warmed in the Mackenzie Valley. The gre...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation (alternative version)
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale
The most recent geological history, in the last hundred thousand years, has been characterised by cycles of glaciations, or ice ages. The historic temperatures, through these times, have been low, and continental ice she...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major glacier hazard locations
Major glacier hazard locations
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007
The red line indicates the median minimum extent of the ice cover for the period 1979–2000. This figure compares the Arctic sea ice extent in September for the years 1982 (the record maximum since 1979), 2005 and 2007 (t...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These r...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water
Ringed seals are the 'classic' Arctic seal in many regards, being found as far north as the Pole because of their ability to keep breathing holes open in ice that can reach 2 metres in depth. This species is certainly on...
01 Nov 2007 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003
Mass-balance estimates for Greenland show thickening at high elevations since the early 1990s at rates that increased to about 4 cm per year after 2000, consistent with expectations of increasing snowfall in a warming cl...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mass balance reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges
Thirty reference glaciers with almost continuous mass balance measurements since 1975 show an average annual mass loss of 0.58 m water equivalent for the past decade (1996–2005), which is more than twice the loss rat...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Time series of freeze-up and break-up dates from selected Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers, 1846–1995
Limited by the availability of detailed observations, most historical evaluations of changes in freshwater ice have focused on relatively simple characteristics, such as the timing of autumn freeze up and spring break up...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Overview of world glaciers and ice caps
By far the largest area of glaciers and ice fields are found in Canada (about 201 000 km2), followed by Alaska (about 75 000 km2) with about 700 km2 in the rest of the USA. Glaciers and ice fields are concentrated in th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mass balance of Maliy Aktru Glacier, Russian Altai
Measurements on this valley-type glacier in the North Chuyskiy Range show a slightly negative annual mass balance trend culminating in an ice loss of about 4 m water equivalent over the period 1964–2005.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Northern Hemisphere snow-cover extent anomalies 1966-2005
Data from satellite monitoring from 1966 to 2005 show that mean monthly snow-cover extent in the Northern Hemisphere is decreasing at a rate of 1.3 per cent per decade. For the calendar year of 2006 average snow-cover ex...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected temperatures in the 21th century
Projected Arctic annual land temperature increases for the first half of the 21st century relative to the average temperature for 1980–99. The average of the IPCC models (the blue line) shows an increase of 3ºC by 2050. ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records
Evidence from tree rings and other temperature proxies suggests that during the previous 500 years global temperatures were 1.0ºC cooler than those of the 20th century during a period roughly from 1300 to 1870 – known as...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements
The figure shows rates at which the ice-sheet mass was estimated to be changing based on radar-altimeter data (black), mass-budget calculations (red), and satellite gravity measurements (blue). Rectangles depict the time...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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