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Collection: Environment and Poverty Times #5: Pro-poor growth issue

Environment and Poverty Times #5: Pro-poor growth issueEnvironment and Poverty Times #5: Pro-poor growth issue
This issue of Environment & Poverty Times was released at the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV) in Yokohama, Japan in May 2008. The paper features a collection of short articles, maps, graphics and other illustrations that focuses on the complex links between environment and poverty reduction. The articles describe how natural resources can contribute to economic growth that also benefits the poor. With the right mixture of entrepreneurship, investments and enabling policies at the national and international levels we can create economic opportunities for people to move beyond subsistence levels. Environment and Poverty Times is a series of publications in newspaper format, presenting current issues related to development and environment.
Available online at: http://www.grida.no/publications/et/ep5
Natural resources - agricultural potential Natural resources - agricultural potential
Soils underpin the production of a wide range of agricultural and industrial goods and services. Soil productivity is essential to agricultural activities - for food security, cash income and supporting the livelihoods of the poor. Agriculture is the major engine of economic growth in a majority of developing countries – for instance low income developing countries have a high share of agriculture in gross domestic product. This map presents a ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trade in illegal wood products and corruption Trade in illegal wood products and corruption
Where government officials are keen to keep an eye shut for a share of the profits, the more the forests suffer. About 5 billion USD per year is estimated to be lost due to uncollected taxes and royalties on legally sanctioned timber harvests due to corruption. Other forests are falling while the responsible officers look the other way. A majority of the illegal timber comes from Asia, with China and Indonesia as the main sources.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
With our climate changes, we have to adapt our ways to a new environment – in most cases warmer and possibly wetter and drier. Projections on the climate in the future provide some guidance for us, but how can we create models for how the human society reacts? This map presents a rough idea of changes in agricultural output from increased temperatures, precipitation differences and also from carbon fertilization for plants. Projecting climate is ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human vulnerability and food insecurity – rainfall and economy in Sub-Saharan Africa Human vulnerability and food insecurity – rainfall and economy in Sub-Saharan Africa
For Sub-Saharan Africa, patterns in economic growth follow precipitation patterns closely. As rainfall has decreased over the last 30 years, so has the financial development. Rainfed agriculture represents a major share of the economy of these countries, as well as for domestic food supply. Improved water resources management and a wider resource base are critical to the stability and security that is required for economic development.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth
To alleviate rural poverty, one way is to sustainably use the natural resources available to the people and the communities. By supporting and expanding fisheries, small-scale mining, forestry, ecosystem services and other similar activities and making it easier to run a businesses out of these, economic growth can be gained. This illustration symbolizes this in the form of a tree, with different natural resources as leaves and the trunk being ma...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources path to poverty reduction - diagramme Natural resources path to poverty reduction - diagramme
The rural poor of the World, and the poor countries that they live in, do not have much in monetary wealth - but natural resources represents a possible source of income. With the right support, on both the national level as well as from the international community, the economical growth generated from these resources can alleviate poverty sustainably.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The economy of legal wildlife trade The economy of legal wildlife trade
The trade in wild species can contribute significantly to rural incomes, and the effect upon local economies can be substantial. The high value of wildlife products and derivatives can also provide positive economic incentives to provide an alternative to other land use options for the local people - to protect wild species and their habitats, and to maintain the resource for sustainable and profitable use in the medium and long term. Consequent...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002 Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. The majority of the catches in some of the areas of the coast are not primarily by the coastal countries, but rather as in this example, where countries from Europe and Asia (Japan and South Korea are in the ‘others’ group) represent the majority. According to this estimation Mauritania only landed about 10% of the total catch in 2002, with Netherlands a...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries
It is estimated that exported timber only represents 5 per cent of the wood cut in tropical forests. 10 per cent is timber used locally and the majority - 85 per cent- of wood is for fuel. While exports are generally the preserve of large scale enterprises, the domestic market is dominated by small forest enterprises. In many countries the forest sector constitutes mainly small forest enterprises - employing from 10 to 100 full-time employees. Th...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The development potential - available land per capita, in land use class The development potential - available land per capita, in land use class
The amount of land area available per capita provides a rough measure on the current carrying capacity for food security and for the development of additional agricultural products for export – such as biofuels. The calculation presented in this figure show that most of Asia is very limited in this respect, especially since populations are expected to increase. Latin America and parts of Sub-Saharan Africa show more potential for the development ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Financial flows for developing countries Financial flows for developing countries
With increased globalization and a smaller world, money flows more easily and the flows have increased. Where aid once represented a majority of the funds from high income countries to developing countries, this has now been surpassed by investments and worker’s remittances, and these flows show no sign of slowing down – maybe pausing for an occasional downturn in the global economy. The question is when this will start show as a significant decr...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Money talks for turtles - conservation and economy Money talks for turtles - conservation and economy
Marine turtles have been used for eggs, meat, shell, oil, leather or other products for 7000 years. Modern times have introduced another way for society to profit from these species - to generate economic income as a tourism attraction. Sound turtle management relies on local communities, which – as economic incentive - should receive a fair share of the revenues. In many cases, the bulk of the revenues from the local level end up elsewhere, eve...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World poverty distribution World poverty distribution
Three-quarters of all poor people still live in rural areas. They are heavily reliant on natural resources for their livelihoods: soil, water, forests and fisheries underpin commercial and subsistence activities and often provide a safety net to the poor in times of crises. These natural resources which are abundant in many developing countries - represent an important asset and potential wealth for poor people and their communities. As many of t...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - solar power (potential) Natural resource - solar power (potential)
More than two billion people cannot access affordable energy services today. They depend on inefficient locally collected and often unprocessed biomass-based fuels, such as crop residues, wood, and animal dung. Because convenient, affordable energy can contribute to a household’s productivity and income generating potential, its availability can help families and communities break out of the cycle of poverty. At the same time it also provides gro...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources - minerals Natural resources - minerals
In more than hundred countries around the world, miners dig minerals and metals out of the ground, satisfying a slowly but continuously increasing demand from industrial production, agriculture, construction, high-tech sectors, and merchandise producers. In contrast to the other natural resources presented here, minerals are a finite resource, and the resource and their profits needs to be managed carefully to ensure sustained livelihoods after t...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forests working for the global climate - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD) Forests working for the global climate - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD)
Carbon trading of credits from avoided deforestation could yield billions of dollars for tropical countries, according to an analysis by Rhett A.Butler, founder and editor from mongabay.com, a leading tropical forest web site. The proposed mechanism - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD) - will enable these countries to maintain their forests as a global resource. Using conservative estimates on carbon storage in ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Government revenues from diamond exports in Sierra Leone Government revenues from diamond exports in Sierra Leone
The government of Sierra Leone saw a total of USD 5.2 million (2004) in revenues from diamond related activities. This comes in the form of mining, dealer and export license fees and from export taxes. To feed some of the revenues back to poor communities, the Diamond Areas Community Development Fund (DACDF) has been set up, with an annual commitment of 25% of revenue from export taxes. The intention is that this money will be dedicated to commun...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda
The Mabira forest reserve, on the shores of Lake Victoria hosts valuable wildlife, serves as a timber resource, provides ecosystem services for the water balance and the rainforests represents a tourist destination. Following a proposed plan for clearing a third of the reserve for agricultural use, the values of the forest were calculated by local researchers. This economic evaluation of the forest shows that from a short-term perspective, growin...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests) World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests)
Approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on forests for their livelihoods. Forest and its products provide cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor families. Forestry provides formal and informal employment for an estimated 40-60 million people. The sector contributes in some developing countries more than eight per cent to GDP. Timber may be the most important forest produc...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off) Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off)
Freshwater – a natural resource which has been adopted as a human right by the UN in 2002: 'the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient; affordable; physically accessible; safe and acceptable water for personal and domestic uses'. People depend on this resource for drinking and cooking, for irrigation of farms, for hygiene and sanitation and for power generation. The map presenting this resource only focuses on one part of the geogra...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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