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Aquaculture in the Mediterranean and Black seas Aquaculture in the Mediterranean and Black seas
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from farmed fish.More than half of aquaculture production in the Mediterranean comes from western European countries (58 %).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Evolution of the world grain production, comparision with China and United-States Evolution of the world grain production, comparision with China and United-States
The graphic compares the evolution of the grain production of China and the United States to world statistics from 1960 to 1995. the graphic demonstrates the overall increase in grain production globally, as well as Chinas leading role as the worlds dominating grain producer from 1960 to 1995.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This will cause some low-lying coastal areas to become completely submerged, while others will increasingly face short-lived high-water levels. These anticipated changes could have a major impact on the lives of coastal populations. The small island developing states (SIDS) will be especially vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise, and to changes in ...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Coastal erosion (EU) and fragile ecosystems in the Mediterranean Coastal erosion (EU) and fragile ecosystems in the Mediterranean
Among the many impacts erosion has on coastal ecosystems are the destruction of soil surface layers, leading to groundwater pollution and to reduction of water resources; degradation of dunes, leading to desertification; reduction of biological diversity; adverse effects on beach dynamics; reduction of sedimentary resources; and disappearance of the sandy littoral lanes that protect agricultural land from the intrusion of seawater, resulting in ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Industrial hazardous waste in the Mediterranean countries Industrial hazardous waste in the Mediterranean countries
Industry is frequently located along the region’s coasts in areas with high population density, sometimes within urban centres, and often in close proximity to other economic activities like agriculture and tourism. This means that pressures brought by industry to coastal and marine environments add to and interact with other types of pressures. The environmental pressures on the Mediterranean coastal marine environment generated by this ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea level variations in the Mediterranean
Sea level is rising significantly in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an average 12 cm rise registered on the Levantine coast since 1992. However, causes are not yet known, and a cause-effect relationship with climate change has not yet been established.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Environmental hotspots on the Mediterranean coast Environmental hotspots on the Mediterranean coast
A graphic overview identifying the environmental hotspots and ares of major environmental concern on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tourism in the Mediterranean countries Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The Mediterranean basin, if considered as a single area, is by far the largest global tourism destination, attracting almost a third of the world’s international tourists (306 million out of 980 million worldwide) and generating more than a quarter of international tourism receipts (190 out of 738 billion Euro worldwide). It is forecasted that the Mediterranean region will reach 500 million of international tourist arrivals by 2030 (UNWTO 2012).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean
A large proportion of marine litter is plastics (UNEP 2009). The impact of large plastic material on the environment has been widely studied. Effects include entanglement of marine animals in plastic and ingestion of plastic by marine organisms.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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States, organizations and strategical issues in the Arctic: People across borders States, organizations and strategical issues in the Arctic: People across borders
Through numerous fora, Arctic peoples now seek to define a sustainable balance in their participation between the cash economy and their traditional pursuit. Their right to influence the future of the coastal regions is under heavy pressure from industrial fisheries and exploration activities based much further south.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual discharge, the ten largest rivers contributing to the Mediterranean Sea are the Rhone, Po, Drin-Bojana, Nile, Neretva, Ebro, Tiber, Adige, Seyhan, and Ceyhan. These rivers account for half of the mean annual discharge, with the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Biodiversity in the Mediterranean
Species diversity in the Mediterranean Basin tends to increase from east to west with 43 % of known species occurring in the Eastern Mediterranean, 49 % in the Adriatic, and 87 % in the Western Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2012). The Western Mediterranean also has more endemic species than other regions of the sea. In addition, its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and its seasonal frontal and upwelling systems provide nutrients. The Western Basin ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Fish catch in the Mediterranean Sea sub-regions Fish catch in the Mediterranean Sea sub-regions
Fishing is an important issue for the Mediterranean. Although it puts only a relatively small quantity of produce on the market compared with the demand, it is a significant source of employment and an important component of the Mediterranean cultural identity. It accounts for 420.000 jobs, 280.000 of which are fishermen, and the average prices of landed produce are much higher than world prices.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Population density and urban centres in the Mediterranean basin Population density and urban centres in the Mediterranean basin
The total population of the Mediterranean countries grew from 276 million in 1970 to 412 million in 2000 (a 1,35 % increase per year) and to 466 million in 2010. The population is predicted to reach 529 million by 2025. Four countries account for about 60 % of the total population: Turkey (81 million), Egypt (72 million), France (62 million), and Italy (60 million) (Plan Bleu computations based on UNDESA 2011). Overall, more than half the popula...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Non-renewable energy resources in the Mediterranean Non-renewable energy resources in the Mediterranean
The active trade and distribution of oil and gas in the Mediterranean Basin, both on land and at sea, involves an extensive network of crude oil pipelines and gas line systems, mainly in the countries of production, linking their oilfields to their refineries and port terminals or to other countries.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per surface unit of arable land is highest in countries of the northern watershed, with the exception of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania. In contrast, point-source release is highest on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. Other point sou...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Coastal transport infrastructure in the Mediterranean Coastal transport infrastructure in the Mediterranean
With regards to the coastal zone the development of maritime transport is inherently linked to the development of coastal infrastructures such as ports and motorways and railways connecting inland areas to the ports. The development of large logistic coastal infrastructures brings, amongst others, fragmentation of coastal landscapes and habitats, changes in the land use and increased pollution loads
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Agriculture and population in the Mediterranean basin Agriculture and population in the Mediterranean basin
Agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin, despite many different sub-climates, is mainly rain-fed. Cereals, vegetables, and citrus fruits account for over 85 % of the Mediterranean’s total agricultural production (UNEP/MAP/BP/RAC 2009). Cultivation of other products, such as olives for olive oil and grapes for wine, also occupies a significant amount of agricultural land (Leff et al. 2004).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean surface productivity and eutrophic and hypoxic hot spots in the Mediterranean Mean surface productivity and eutrophic and hypoxic hot spots in the Mediterranean
Eutrophic areas are high primary productivity zones due to excessive nutrients and therefore subject to algal blooms resulting in poor water quality. This can also lead to hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia is the condition where oxygen dissolved in water becomes reduced in concentration to a point where is becomes detrimental to aquatic organisms living in the system.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Wastewater treatment in the Mediterranean coastal cities Wastewater treatment in the Mediterranean coastal cities
The distribution of coastal cities that either lack wastewater treatment facilities or have inadequate treatment facilities (defined as those removing less than 70 to 90 % of the Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)) can be used as a proxy to identify areas where potentially deleterious amounts of organic matter are being added to the marine environment. Effective removal of pollutants from wastewater is achieved through secondary treatment that rem...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Oil spilled in the Mediterranean Oil spilled in the Mediterranean
The Eastern Mediterranean accounts for two-thirds of the total quantity spilled in the last decade. If the Lebanese spill of 2006 is taken out of the calculations, the Western Mediterranean, Central Mediterranean, and Eastern Mediterranean spilled roughly the same quantities (between 4.000 and 6.000 tonnes), while less than 100 tonnes was spilled in the Adriatic, according to the information made available to REMPEC.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008 Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008
Nutrients in seawater present a paradox. Nutrients are, of course, essential for life. In the oligotrophic environment of the Mediterranean, the ecosystems with the most nutrients are generally the most productive and diverse. At the same time, many Mediterranean nearshore areas are threatened by nutrient over-enrichment due to coastal and watershed development. Many developed coastal areas suffer particularly from increased influx of dissolve...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea
The large-scale circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been described as sub-basin-scale and mesoscale gyres interconnected and bounded by currents and jets with strong seasonal and inter-annual variability (Millot and Taupier-Letage 2005). This general circulation flow impinges on the coastal regions and strongly influences the local dynamics of currents. Shelf areas in the Mediterranean are comparatively small and are separated from the dee...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Hypoxia in the Mediterranean Sea Hypoxia in the Mediterranean Sea
Hypoxic (low oxygen)conditions can be caused by eutrophication. The decrease in oxygen is due both to algae reducing dissolved oxygen through respiration and the decomposition of dead algae. In extreme cases, oxygen depletion can result in the death of marine organisms.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Water stress in the Mediterranean basin Water stress in the Mediterranean basin
An overview of water stress in the Mediterranean basin, highlighting water exploitation as well as existing and planned desalination plants.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Maritime transportation routes in the Mediterranean Maritime transportation routes in the Mediterranean
Another strong traditional economic sector in the Mediterranean is transport, specifically maritime transport. The Mediterranean Sea is among the world’s busiest waterways, accounting for 15 % of global shipping activity by number of calls and 10 % by vessel deadweight tonnes (dwt). More than 325.000 voyages occurred in the Mediterranean Sea in 2007, representing a capacity of 3.800 million tonnes. Almost two-thirds of the traffic was internal...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising that impacts on marine habitats are particularly severe there (UNEP/MAP 2012). Benthic, or sea-bottom, habitats and the communities associated with them are especially vulnerable.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010) Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010)
The Black and Mediterranean Seas are one of the main outlets for transporting fuel resources that have been extracted around the Caspian Sea region and from further inland. Oil is transported in pipelines to the ports on the Black Sea. Forecast project a dramatic increase by 2010, including the opening of a new port in Turkey.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Oil exports via The Black and Mediterranean Seas Oil exports via The Black and Mediterranean Seas
Future projection in volume of oil exportation via Black and Mediterranean Seas.
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
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Raw materials consumption in the United States Raw materials consumption in the United States
The United States consumption of key raw materials is rising fast. Since 1950 some raw material consumption has increase by over 200 percent. Raw materials used for construction has risen over 400 percent in the same time period.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Aquaculture production in the Mediterranean Aquaculture production in the Mediterranean
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from framed fish. Although the Mediterranean region has a long history of fish farming, aquaculture and particularly mariculture have undergone a dramatic expansion since the 1990s. Decreasing wild fish stocks, combined with increasing consumer demand for fish, have spurred growth of the industry.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Major industrial sectors emitting metals in the Mediterranean region Major industrial sectors emitting metals in the Mediterranean region
In the Mediterranean countries, according to the National Baseline Budget (NBB) inventory, atmospheric emissions of metals are mostly related to the cement industry (Hg, Cu), production of energy (As, Cd, Ni) and the metal industry (Pb, Zn). Water releases appear to be mostly related to the fertiliser industry (Hg, As, Pb), metal industry (Ni, Zn) and wastewater treatment plants (Cd, Cu), with important contributions also from the energy sec...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tourism in the Mediterranean countries Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted some 250 million visitors in 2008. In France, tourism provides 43 per cent of jobs in coastal regions, generating more revenue than fishing or shipping. In the UK, tourism to the coast is worth £110 billion (approximately US$171 ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Urban population in the Mediterranean countries Urban population in the Mediterranean countries
Urban development in the Mediterranean has been very rapid. Of the 190 million people added to the population between 1970 and 2010, 163 million live in towns. Urban population (towns with more than 10.000 inhabitants) increased 1,9 % per year during that period, from 152 million to 315 million. The total could reach 385 million by 2025. More than 74 % of this growth took place in the south and east, where urban growth from 1970 to 2010 averaged...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea
The National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) has undertaken modelling to perform comprehensive spatial analysis and mapping of human pressures throughout the Mediterranean Basin. This work builds on a previous global analysis of cumulative human impacts (Halpern et al. 2008), including additional information to better reflect the specific pressures and ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea and coasts. A total of 22 spatial da...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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