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Chapter Three: Policy Responses

Africa

- The policy background
- MEAs and non-binding instruments
- Laws and institutions
- Economic instruments
- Industry and new technologies
- Financing environmental action
- Public participation
- Environmental information and education
- Social policies
- Conclusion
- References

-- Asia and the Pacific



 KEY FACTS
 

*  Many countries have recognized their need to move beyond Agenda 21 in order to deal more effectively with the interlinked challenges of economic recovery, poverty reduction and sustainable development.
*  Most countries have now developed National Action Plans to combat desertification and some have gone further: Tunisia, for example, has strengthened its 'Yellow Hand' environmental programme to combat desertification and promote the socio-economic development of rural areas.
*  Some countries - for example Benin, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Seychelles and Uganda - have incorporated the environmental rights and responsibilities of their citizens in their constitutions.
*  The move toward sustainable development will require major changes in many policies, programmes, laws and institutional arrangements, outside as well as within the environment field.
*  Botswana and Namibia, for example, have recently developed natural resource accounts to enable a better assessment of their economic value and management options.
*  Regional centres have been strengthened to provide expertise in environmental management but most are vulnerable because of their dependence on government and donor funding; their inability to compete with the salaries offered by the private sector and international organizations is leading to a brain drain within and outside Africa.
*  The governments and people of Africa are increasingly setting their own agenda for change as a result of more democratic rule and improved governance in several countries and greater cooperation at the sub-regional, regional and global levels.

 


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