Note: This is the 1997 edition of UNEP's Global Environment Outlook. If you are interested in more recent information, please see the 2000 and 2002 editions.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Global Environment Outlook-1 - The Web version


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Table of Contents

[ Exec. Summary | Ch. 1 | Ch. 2 | Ch. 3 | Ch. 4 | List of Figures | List of Tables ]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
FOREWORD
TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1: THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT OUTLOOK PROCESS

CHAPTER 2: REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES

CHAPTER 3: POLICY RESPONSES AND DIRECTIONS

CHAPTER 4: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE

APPENDIX 1. ACRONYMS
APPENDIX 2. COLLABORATING CENTRES
APPENDIX 3. INTERNATIONAL GEO CONSULTATIONS
APPENDIX 4. CONTRIBUTORS AND REVIEWERS
List of Figures

[ Exec. Summary | Ch. 1 | Ch. 2 | Ch. 3 | Ch. 4 ]

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Executive Summary
Fig. 1. Framework of the global environment outlook process
Fig. 2. Environmental transitions
Fig. 3. Changing priority concerns over time
Fig. 4. Changing use of policy instruments over time
Fig. 5. Gross world product, 1950 - 1994.
Fig. 6. The action cycle
Chapter 1: The Global Environment Outlook Process
No figures
Chapter 2: Regional Perspectives
Fig. 2.1. Important causes of soil degradation in Africa.
a) Areas affected by overgrazing
Fig. 2.1. Important causes of soil degradation in Africa.
b) Areas affected by agricultural activities
Fig. 2.1. Important causes of soil degradation in Africa.
c) Areas affected by overexploitation of vegetation
Fig. 2.1. Important causes of soil degradation in Africa.
d) Areas affected by deforestation
Fig. 2.2. Average annual change in the extent of forest in selected African countries, 1981 - 90.
Fig. 2.3. Trends in mean annual rainfall in the Sahel (1897 - 1990).
Fig. 2.4. Access to safe water and sanitation services in Africa.
Fig. 2.5. African coastal ecosystems threatened by development.
Fig. 2.6. Causes of land degradation in Asia - Pacific.
Fig. 2.7. Average annual change in the extent of forest in selected Asia - Pacific countries, 1981 - 90.
Fig. 2.8. Numbers of threatened species in selected Asia - Pacific countries, 1990s.
Fig. 2.9. National and international protection of natural areas in Asia and the Pacific.
Fig. 2.10. National and international protection of natural areas in Europe and the CIS countries.
Fig. 2.11. Observed mean annual concentration of phosphorus species for the Rhine River at Lobith station (German - Dutch border).
Fig. 2.12. European coastal ecosystems threatened by development.
Fig. 2.13. Percent change in average annual marine catch from 1981- 83 to 1991 - 93.
Fig. 2.14. Per capita carbon dioxide emissions in selected European countries, 1992.
Fig. 2.15. Desertification and land degradation in agriculturally used drylands of South America.
Fig. 2.16. Average annual change in the extent of forest in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries, 1981 - 90.
Fig. 2.17a. Numbers of threatened animal species in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries, 1990s.
Fig. 2.17b. Numbers of threatened plant species in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries, 1990s.
Fig. 2.18. Latin American and Caribbean coastal ecosystems threatened by development.
Fig. 2.19. Percentage of population residing in urban areas in selected countries in Latin American and the Caribbean, 1985 - 2015.
Fig. 2.20. Percentage of known species threatened in North America, 1990s.
Fig. 2.21. North American coastal ecosystems threatened by development.
Fig.2.22. Loss of cropland in selected West Asian countries, 1981 - 83 and 1991 - 93.
Fig. 2.23. Access to safe water and sanitation services in West Asia.
Fig. 2.24. Percent change in average annual marine catch from 1981 - 83 to 1991 - 93.
Fig. 2.25. Map of protected areas in the Arctic region.
Fig. 2.26. Antarctica and the Southern Ocean.
Fig. 2.27. Seasonal variability of Antarctic sea ice, 1973 - 92.
Box 2.2. Fig.1. Water level and salinity change in the Aral Sea.
Box 2.2. Fig.2. Chronology of the Aral Sea changes.
Chapter 3: Policy Responses and Directions
No figures.
Chapter 4: Looking to the Future
Fig. 4.1. Population and economic growth from 1990 - 2100 under different development scenarios.
Fig. 4.2. Regional breakdown used in the modelling chapter.
Fig. 4.3. Recent and projected trends in population growth.
Fig. 4.4. Recent and projected trends in urbanization.
Fig. 4.5. Recent and projected trends in primary energy consumption.
Fig. 4.6. Index of global emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide.
Fig. 4.7. Projected changes in yields in maize attributable to climate change, 1950 - 2050.
Fig. 4.8. Projected changes in average global surface temperatures for varying levels of control of sulphur dioxide emissions, 1950 - 2050.
Fig. 4.9. Projected trends in suphur dioxide emissions in selected regions with partial control emissions and with no control.
Fig. 4.10. Areas in Asia and Europe projected to be seriously affected by acidification and climate change by 2015 and 2050. a) Asia in 2015 - No controls.
Fig. 4.10. Areas in Asia and Europe projected to be seriously affected by acidification and climate change by 2015 and 2050. b) Asia in 2015 - With controls.
Fig. 4.10. Areas in Asia and Europe projected to be seriously affected by acidification and climate change by 2015 and 2050. c) Asia in 2050 - No controls.
Fig. 4.10. Areas in Asia and Europe projected to be seriously affected by acidification and climate change by 2015 and 2050. d) Asia in 2050 - With controls.
Fig. 4.10. Areas in Asia and Europe projected to be seriously affected by acidification and climate change by 2015 and 2050. e) Europe in 2015 - With controls.
Fig. 4.10. Areas in Asia and Europe projected to be seriously affected by acidification and climate change by 2015 and 2050. f) Europe in 2050 - With controls.
Fig. 4.11. Recent and projected trends in caloric intake from vegetable and animal products.
Fig. 4.12. Recent and projected trends in the production of total cereals.
Fig. 4.13. Recent and projected changes in land use and land cover.
Fig. 4.14. Main causes of biodiversity losses and gains.
Fig. 4.15. Habitat loss due to conversation of land from non-domesticated to domesticated areas, 1700 - 1980.
Fig. 4.16. Recent and projected extent of domesticated and non-domesticated land, 1970 - 2050.
Fig. 4.17. Projected changes in geographical distribution of domesticated and non-domesticated land, 1990 - 2050. a) 1990.
Fig. 4.17. Projected changes in geographical distribution of domesticated and non-domesticated land, 1990 - 2050. b) 2015.
Fig. 4.17. Projected changes in geographical distribution of domesticated and non-domesticated land, 1990 - 2050. c) 2050.
Fig. 4.18. Percentage of non-domesticated land area projected to be under different degrees of pressure from human population and associated activities.
Fig. 4.19. Historical and projected changes in the amount of non-domesticated land available per capita.
Fig. 4.20. Numbers of deaths by age group in developing and developed countries, 1990.
Fig. 4.21. Causes of death among children under age 5 in developing countries and developed countries, 1990.
Fig. 4.22. Availability of fresh water, assuming conventional development: land area by availability of fresh water as a percentage of the total world land area.
Fig. 4.23. Availability of fresh water, assuming conventional development: number of people by availability of fresh water.
Fig. 4.24. Projected changes in total fertility, life expectancy , and resulting changes in population for India, Mexico, the Netherlands, and the world.
Fig. 4.25. Disability-adjusted life expectancy years in India, Mexico, the Netherlands, and the world.
Fig. 4.26. Potential environmental gains of two different policy strategies.

List of Tables

[ Executive Summary | Ch. 1 | Ch. 2 | Ch. 3 | Ch. 4 ]

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Executive Summary
Tab. 1. Regional concerns: Relative importance given to environmental issues by regions.
Tab. 2. Regional environmental trends.
Tab. 3. Environmental regional policy responses.
Chapter 1: The Global Environment Outlook Process
No tables.
Chapter 2: Regional Perspectives
Tab. 2.1. Annual internal renewable water resources and water withdrawals in selected African countries.
Tab. 2.2. Relative significance of resource and environmental issues in selected countries in Asia and the Pacific
Tab. 2.3. Annual internal renewable water resources and water withdrawals in selected Asia-Pacific countries.
Tab. 2.4. Water quality issues in the Asia-Pacific region
Tab. 2.5. Urban water and sanitation coverage in the Asia-Pacific region, 1994.
Tab. 2.6. Annual internal renewable water resources and water withdrawals in selected European and CIS countries.
Tab. 2.7. Changes in total emissions to the atmosphere from stationary sources in selected countries of the former Soviet Union. 1993 emissions as percentage of 1990 emissions.
Tab. 2.8. Annual internal renewable water resources and water withdrawals in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries.
Tab. 2.9. Population estimates, projections, and growth rates for the seven largest cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995 and 2000.
Tab. 2.10. Annual internal renewable water resources and water withdrawals in North America.
Tab. 2.11. Water prices in selected countries.
Tab. 2.12. Water resources in the West Asia region.
Tab. 2.13. Water demand for West Asia region, 1990.
Tab. 2.14. Urban growth rates for West Asian countries in 1980 - 85 and 1990 - 95.
Tab. 2.15. Changes in total fish catch in the Antarctic region from 1991-92 to 1995-96.
Chapter 3: Policy Responses and Directions
Tab. 3.1. Key characteristics of five national environmental protection funds in Central and Eastern Europe.
Tab. 3.2. National action plans and environmental information in the Latin America and Caribbean.
Tab. 3.3. Governmental environment institutions and agencies in West Asia.
Tab. 3.4. National parks and protected areas in the West Asia region.
Tab. 3.5. Status of West Asian countries regarding selected international treaties on the environment.
Chapter 4: Looking to the Future
Tab. 4.1. Selected base year data and assumptions for GEO analysis: Absolute figures.
Tab. 4.2. Selected base year data and assumptions for GEO analysis: Per capita figures.
Tab. 4.3a. Sulphur dioxide emission estimates from different sources.
Tab. 4.3b. Emissions of sulphur compounds assumed under conventional development (teragrams).
Tab. 4.4. Animal products and crops demanded by an increasing world population.
Tab. 4.5. Projected yields of wheat and coarse grains for selected regions (metric tons per hectare).
Tab. 4.6. Non-domesticated land as percentage of total regional land area, 1990 - 2050.

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