Acronyms and Abbreviations

ABC Asian Brown Cloud
AEPC African Environmental Protection Commission
AEPS Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy
AEWA African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ALGAS Asia Least Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies
AMCEN African Ministerial Conference on the Environment
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
AoA Agreement on Agriculture
AOC Areas of Concern
APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
AQIS Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
AU African Union
BOD biological oxygen demand
BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy
CAB Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences
CAMP Coastal Area Management Project
CAP Common Agricultural Policy
CARICOM Caribbean Community
CBC community-based conservation
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CBO community-based organization
CCA-AP Central American Council for Forests and Protected Areas
CCAMLR Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
CCD Convention to Combat Desertification
CCFSC Central Committee for Flood and Storm Control
C-ROM Compact disk-read only memory
CEC Commission for Environmental Cooperation
CEE Central and Eastern Europe
CEIT Countries with Economies in Transition
CEP Committee for Environmental Protection
CERES Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CH4 methane
CIAT International Centre for Tropical Agriculture
CILSS Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CLRTAP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
cm centimetre
CMS Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
CNC Chinese National Committee
CNG compressed natural gas
CO carbon monoxide
CO2 carbon dioxide
COP Conference of the Parties
CPACC Caribbean Planning for the Adaptation of Global Climate Change
CPF collaborative partnerships on forests
CRAMRA Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities
CRP Conservation Reserve Program (United States)
CSD Commission on Sustainable Development
CTBT Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
CZIMP Coastal Zone Integrated Management Plan
DALY disability adjusted life year
DDT dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DPSIR driving force-pressure-state-impact-response
EANET Acid Deposition Monitoring Network
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC European Community
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
EfE Environment for Europe
EIA environmental impact assessment
EMEP Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe
EMS Environmental Management System
ENSO El Niño Southern Oscillation
EPC Emergency Preparedness Canada
EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
EPPR Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response
ESA Endangered Species Act (United States)
ESDP European Spatial Development Perspective
ESP electrostatic precipitator
EU European Union
EVI Environmental Vulnerability Index
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FDI foreign direct investment
FDRP Flood Damage Reduction Program
FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency
FEWS Famine Early Warning System
FEWS NET Famine Early Warning System Network
FMCN Mexican Fund for Nature Conservation
FSC Forest Stewardship Council
FSU former Soviet Union
FTAA Free Trade Area for the Americas
G7 Group of Seven: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States
G8 Group of Eight: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council
GCOS Global Climate Observing System
GCRMN Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network
GDP gross domestic product
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System
GEO Global Environment Outlook
GISP Global Invasive Species Programme
GIWA Global International Waters Assessment
GLASOD Global Assessment of Soil Degradation
GLOF glacial flood outburst lake
GLWQA Great Lakes Waters Quality Agreement
GM genetically modified
GMO genetically modified organism
GNP gross national product
GRI Global Reporting Initiative
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP gross state product
HABs harmful algal blooms
HCFC hydrochloroflourocarbon
HDI Human Development Index
HELCOM Helsinki Commission
HFC hydrofluorocarbon
HIPC Heavily Indebted Poor Country
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IABIN Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICLEI International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives
ICM Integrated Coastal Management
ICRAN International Coral Reef Action Network
ICRI International Coral Reef Initiative
ICT information and communication technology
IDNDR International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFF Intergovernmental Forum on Forests
IJC International Joint Commission
ILO International Labour Organization
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INBO International Network of Basin Organizations
INDOEX Indian Ocean Experiment
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPF Intergovernmental Panel on Forests
IPM integrated pest management
IPR intellectual property rights
IRWR internal renewable water resources
ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IT information technology
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN World Conservation Union
IWC International Whaling Commission
IWRM integrated water resources management
IYM International Year of Mountains
km kilometre
LADA Land Degradation Assessment of Drylands
LCBP Lake Champlain Basin Program (United States)
LMO living modified organism
LPG low-propane gas
LRT light rapid transit
LUCAS European Land Use/Land Cover Statistical Survey
MA Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
MAP Mediterranean Action Plan
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
MARS Major Accident Reporting System
MCPFE Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe
MEA multilateral environmental agreement
MEMAC Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre
MERCOSUR Mercado Común del Sur
MRT mass rapid transit
N2O nitrous oxide
NAACO National Ambient Air Quality Objectives (Canada)
NAACS National Ambient Air Quality Standards (United States)
NABIN North American Biodiversity Information Network
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
NARSTO North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone
NAWMP North American Waterfowl Management Plan
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research
NEAP National Environmental Action Plan
NECD EU Directive on National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants
NEPA National Environmental Protection Agency
NEPM National Environmental Protection Measure
NGO non-governmental organization
NH3 ammonia
NIS Newly Independent States
NO nitrogen oxide
NO2 nitrogen dioxide
NOx nitrous oxides
NPK nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus (fertilizer)
NSSD National Strategy for Sustainable Development
O3 ozone
OAU Organization for African Unity
ODA official development assistance
ODS ozone-depleting substance
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OCIPEP Office of Critical Infrastructure and Emergency Preparedness
OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic
PACD Plan of Action to Combat Desertification
PAME Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment
PCB polychlorinated biphenyls
PCP Permanent Cover Program (Canada)
PEBLDS Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy
PEEN Pan-European Ecological Network
PEFC Pan-European Forest Certification
PERSGA Protection of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
PFRA Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (Canada)
PICs Pacific Island Countries
PM2.5 particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less
POPs persistent organic pollutants
PRRC Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission (Philippines)
PSR pressure-state-response
RAP remedial action plan
REMPEC Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea
ROPME Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment
SACEP South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme
SADC Southern African Development Community
SANAA National Autonomous Water and Sewage Authority (Honduras)
SAP structural adjustment programme
SARA Species At Risk Act (Canada)
SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment
SEA strategic environmental assessment
SEI Stockholm Environment Institute
SIDS Small Island Developing State or States
SO2 sulphur dioxide
SOE state of the environment
SOPAC South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission
SPIRS Seveso Plants Information Retrieval System
SPM suspended particulate matter
SPRD Strategic Planning and Research Department (Singapore)
START System for Analysis, Research and Training
TAI Technology Achievement Index
TAO tropical atmospheric ocean
TCA Treaty for Amazonian Cooperation
TCDD 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
TEA Transportation Equity Act
TEK traditional ecological knowledge
TEN Trans-European Network
TFAP Tropical Forestry Action Plan
TRAFFIC Trade Records Analysis for Flora and Fauna in International Commerce
TRI Toxics Release Inventory
TRIPs Trade-Related Aspects of International Property Rights
UEBD Executive Unit for Settlements in Development (Honduras)
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNCHS United Nations Commission on Human Settlements
UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
UNCOD United Nations Conference on Desertification
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNEP-WCMC United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre
UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNF United Nations Foundation
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFF United Nations Forum on Forests
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNOCHA United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
UNSO United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office (now UNDP Office to Combat Desertification)
US United States
US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USFWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service
USGS United States Geological Survey
UV ultraviolet
VOC volatile organic compound
WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development
WCED World Commission on Environment and Development
WCP World Climate Programme
WCS World Conservation Strategy
WFP World Food Programme
WHO World Health Organization
WHYCOS World Hydrological Cycle Observing System
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WSSCC Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTO World Trade Organization
WWC World Water Council
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature
ZACPLAN Zambezi River System Action Plan
ZAMCOM Zambezi Basin Commission