List of boxes

CHAPTER 1

The tragedy of the commons
Principles of the Stockholm Declaration
The birth of the United Nations Environment Programme
World Charter for Nature: general principles
Agenda 21
The role of developing countries in the CBD negotiations
Mandate of the Commission on Sustainable Development
Principles of the Global Compact
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
UN Secretary-General's key proposals presented to the Millennium Summit
Once burned, twice shy: the 1997-98 El Niño
The costs of global warming

CHAPTER 2

Socio-economic background

The Human Development Index
Trends in global energy production and consumption
The Ecological Footprint
The enlargement of the European Union
Availability of and access to environmental information
Energy consumption in Europe
Inequities in social development
Energy production and consumption: West Asia
The importance of subsistence foods
Alaskan Oil and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Land

Population controversy
Chemicals and land use
Urban agriculture in Zimbabwe
Land and the International Year of the Mountains: importance of the mountain commons
International efforts to improve land management
Environmental impact of the land tenure regime on soil conditions in Jamaica
Conservation programmes
The Madrid Protocol on Environmental Protection

Forests

Forest goods and services
Where the forest meets the sea
Forest certification
Agricultural encroachment in Uganda and Kenya
Forest plantations: Asia and the Pacific
Pan-European criteria for sustainable forest management
Forest fires in Latin America and the Caribbean
Shade-grown coffee - harnessing the market for sustainable development
Clayoquot Sound
Forest fragmentation in the Arctic
Arctic forests and climate change

Biodiversity

The Living Planet Index: a global biodiversity indicator
New species in Viet Nam
Conservation in Nepal
Financial support for biodiversity in Central and Eastern Europe
Wetlands and waterfowl
Restoration of the Florida Everglades
Bio-invasion

Freshwater

The costs of water-related diseases
Vision 21: global targets for water supply and sanitation
The International Network of Basin Organizations
Ministerial Declaration on Water Security in the 21st Century
Rainfall variability in the Lake Chad basin
Sludge disposal in Cairo
Lake Toba-Lake Champlain Sister Lakes Exchange
Water pollution in Australia
How the Volga and the Ural were not cleaned up
The Tegucigalpa Model: water supply for peri-urban settlements
The Guarani Aquifer System
Health risks from groundwater pollution
Water use for irrigation in West Asia

Coastal and marine areas

Jellyfish in the Black Sea
Addressing coastal and marine degradation
Managing ballast water discharges in Australia
Hazards and contingency planning for oil spills
Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon and other wild fish stock
Chesapeake Bay
Coastal and marine action plans in West Asia

Atmosphere

Impacts associated with air pollution
The background to international cooperation on climate change
Climate variability in Africa
Urban air pollution in Asia
The Asian brown cloud
Health effects of air pollution related to road traffic in Austria, France and Switzerland
Air pollution increases mortality
Dealing with air pollution in Mexico City
Ground-level ozone in North America
Impact of air pollution on health in North America
The cement industry pollutes the atmosphere
Long-range transport of pollutants to polar regions
The significance of Arctic haze

Urban areas

Facts about cities
The ecological footprints of cities
Nairobi's garbage
The rise of urban farming
Urban improvement initiatives
Sustainable commuting in Singapore
A model for public transport systems
Compact urban development and smart growth
Urban growth in the Arctic
The interplay of rural and urban populations

Disasters

Socio-economic effects of the 1997-98 El Niño
The 1999 earthquake in Izmit, Turkey
China committed to risk reduction
Prevention and preparedness to reduce the costs of disasters
Environmental impacts of refugees in Africa
Selected natural disasters: Asia and the Pacific
The Aral Sea: a human-induced environmental and humanitarian disaster
Being prepared: Viet Nam's disaster reduction programme
The Rhine Action Plan on Flood Defence
Baia Mare: analysis of a mining accident
El Niño and epidemic diseases
Ecological and social impacts of earthquakes in El Salvador
Vulnerability to natural hazards: a geo-referenced index for Honduras
Major floods over the past 30 years
Kuwait Bay: a soup for disaster

CHAPTER 3

Vulnerability in a crisis area: Mount Nyiragongo
Culture and climate change
The hazards of living in high latitudes
Floods caused by glacial lake outbursts
Africa's Lake Victoria basin: multiple dimensions of vulnerability
Watershed management and flooding
Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh
Food security: is the Green Revolution losing momentum?
The cost of resource degradation in India
Breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms: Kenyan pastoralists
Advantages of foresight: predicting El Niño
Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET)
Environmental vulnerability of small island developing states
A framework for assessing risk

CHAPTER 4

Narratives or numbers
Markets First
Policy First
Security First
Sustainability First
Imagine ... an Environmental Protection Commission for Africa
Imagine ... widespread surface and groundwater contamination in Asia and the Pacific
Imagine ... a major food scare in Europe
Imagine ... effects on Latin America and the Caribbean of a profound world recession
Imagine ... water stress in mid-continental North America
Imagine ... a major seven-year drought in West Asia
Imagine ... a crash in circumpolar Antarctic krill stocks
Reflections on the use of scenarios

CHAPTER 5

What to aim for
Suggestions for Action: Improving policy performance monitoring
Suggestions for Action: Strengthening international environmental legislation and compliance
Suggestions for Action: Changing trade patterns to benefit the environment
Technology transfer: lessons from the Montreal Protocol
Suggestions for Action: Valuing the environment
Suggestions for Action: Making the market work for sustainable development
Suggestions for Action: Further voluntary action
Suggestions for Action: Participatory management
Ways to strengthen local action