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Control of water pollution from agriculture
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Crop evapotranspiration - guidelines for computing crop water requirements
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Crops and drops: making the best use of water for agriculture
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Effective rainfall in irrigated agriculture
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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El riego en América Latina y el Caribe
Publication Series: Water Reports 20
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Environmental impact assessment of irrigation and drainage projects
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Field measurement of soil erosion and runoff
Publication Series: FAO Soils Bulletin
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Guidelines for designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Guidelines: land evaluation for irrigated agriculture
Publication Series: FAO Soils Bulletin
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Handbook on Pressurized Irrigation Techniques
Irrigated Agriculture has been an extremely important source of food production over recent decades. Food requirements will increase in future, while global water resources are limited. Therefore, making the best use of water for agriculture and improving irrigation efficiency are prerequisites for the future. Shifting from surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation will contribute substancially to these goals. The objective of this handbook is to provide a practical guide for irrigation and agriculture technicians and extension workers in the field.
Keywords: irrigation, handbook, irrigation techniques, pressurized irrigation, irrigation equipment
Credits: A. Phocaides
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Introduction à la gestion conservatoire de l'eau, de la biomasse et de la fertilité des sols (GCES)
Publication Series: Bulletin Pédologique de la FAO
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Irrigation Water Management: Canals
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Drainage of irrigated land
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Elements of topographic surveying
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Introduction to irrigation
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Irrigation methods
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Irrigation scheduling
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Irrigation scheme operation and maintenance
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Irrigation Water Management: Irrigation water needs
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Scheme irrigation water needs and supply
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Small-scale pumped irrigation: energy and cost
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation Water Management: Structures for water control and distribution
Publication Series: Training manual
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Irrigation in Africa in figures/ L'irrigation en Afrique en chiffres
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Irrigation in Asia in Figures
The Aquastat programme aims at presenting a comprehensive picture of water resources development and irrigation, with emphasis on developing countries. This report is the fourth of a series and presents the results of surveys performed in the countries of Asia, carried out in 1997 and 1998. The survey relies as much as possible on country-based statistics and information contained in national publications. A general summary presents a regional synopsis on water resources development, irrigation and drainage in the region, and a series of country profiles describes the specific situation of each country.
Publication Series: FAO Water Reports 18
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Irrigation in Latin America and the Caribbean
Publication Series: Water Reports 20
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Irrigation in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union in Figures
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Irrigation in the Near East region in figures
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Irrigation potential in Africa: A basin approach
Publication Series: FAO Land and Water Bulletin
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Irrigation scheduling: From theory to practice. Proceedings
Publication Series: Water Reports
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Irrigation technology transfer in support of food security. (Water Reports - 14)
Publication Series: Water Reports
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La petite irrigation dans les zones arides: Principes et options
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Les aménagements hydro-agricoles en Afrique - Situation actuelle et perspectives.
En Afrique au sud du Sahara, seuls 3,3% des terres agricoles sont irriguées, contre 18% dans le monde. Pourtant, l’irrigation y joue un rôle considérable dans la production agricole et surtout la sécurité alimentaire. Ce papier a été préparé en vue du Colloque international "Eau et santé" (Ouagadougou, novembre 2000) chargé de faire le point sur les impacts sanitaires et nutritionnels des aménagements hydro-agricoles en Afrique. Il présente une description de la situation actuelle de l’irrigation en Afrique et place l’irrigation dans le contexte plus vaste de la production agricole et de la sécurité alimentaire. Il présente enfin les perspectives pour les aménagements hydro-agricoles en Afrique dans les prochaines décennies sur la base d'études récentes de la FAO.
Publication Series: Unpublished document
Credits: J.-M. Faures
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Lucha contra la contaminación agrícola de los recursos hídricos. (Estudio FAO: Riego y drenaje - 55)
Publication Series: Estudio FAO: Riego y drenaje
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Management of agricultural drainage water quality
Publication Series: Water Reports
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Materials for subsurface land drainage systems
This publication presents practical guidelines to assess the need for envelopes and to select appropriate materials (i.e. pipes and envelopes) for the proper and lasting performance of subsurface drainage systems. In addition, it contains guidelines for adequate installation and maintenance of drainage materials as well as the required specifications and standards of such materials, which may be used in tender documents for implementation of subsurface drainage works. Practical guidelines for the implementation of laboratory and field investigations to evaluate the performance of drainage materials have also been included. This Paper aims to provide this practical information to drainage engineers and contractors who are in charge of drainage projects.
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 60
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Modern Water Control and Management Practices in Irrigation
Publication Series: FAO Water Reports 19
Credits: C.M. Burt, S. W. Styles
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Modernization of irrigation system operations: proceedings of the 5th ITIS network international meeting, Aurangabad, 28-30 October 1998
A conference supported by IWMI, Cemagref and FAO gathered in Aurangabad, Maharashtra State, India, between 28 and 30 October 1998 to discuss and exchange ideas concerning the modernization of irrigation system operations. Main conclusions were that there is a need:
1/ for a re-engineering process to rethink the operation of irrigation systems within a more global framework including a clear redefinition of the service of water, the elaboration of a consistent water management strategy at scheme level, the identification of current constraints and a vision for the future development of the scheme,
2/ for in-depth methods of evaluation and monitoring of the performance of pilot projects in terms of costs and benefits and also for rapid evaluation methods mixing diagnosis and the identification of a strategy for modernization at project level;
3/ to consider modernization without limiting it to the introduction of modern hardware and software techniques, but rather as a fundamental transformation of the management of water resources;
4/ to include training and capacity-building to enhance the ability of irrigation professionals to initiate, design, organize and implement modernization measures.
Strategies for modernization should be defined consistently at state level: the goal is to establish a framework for the best institutional arrangement, increase awareness in modernization, upgrade the knowledge of the irrigation professionals, and define methodologies for diagnosis and the selection of appropriate strategies of modernization at project level.
Keywords: water management, modernization, modernisation, rehabilitation, upgradation, operation, maintenance, irrigation, irrigation, management transfer, IMT, participatory irrigation management, PIM, training
Publication Series: FAO-RAP Publication 1999/43
Credits: Daniel Renault, Thierry Facon
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New Dimensions in Water Security
Publication Series: AGL/Misc/25/2000
Credits: W. Klohn
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Organization, operation and manintenance of irrigation schemes
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Performance analysis of on-demand pressurized irrigation systems
The main objective of this publication is the analysis of performance of pressurized irrigation systems operating on-demand (also under other conditions), and provides revised criteria for the design of such irrigation networks. For this purpose new approaches and a computer tool (COPAM) have been developed. Calculation examples have been included to demonstrate the procedures and facilitate the understanding and practical use of formulae. The computer program has been tested in several field situations in the Mediterranean Basin and proved its usefulness by quickly identifying the weak points of the network and the power requirements of pumping stations needed to satisfy varying demand situations. The present publication should be of particular interest to irrigation district managers, consultants, irrigation engineers, irrigation companies, university professors, students of irrigation engineering and planners.
Click here to download the COPAM software !
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 59
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Quality control of wastewater for irrigated crop production.
Publication Series: Water Reports
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Reforming water resources policy - A guide to methods, processes and practices
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Reforming water resources policy - A guide to methods, processes and practices
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Remote sensing and water resources
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Réformer les politiques dans le domaine des ressources en eau: Guide des méthodes, processus et pratiques. (Bulletin FAO d'irrigation et de drainage - 52)
Publication Series: Bulletin FAO d'irrigation et de drainage
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Self-help wells
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Small-scale irrigation for arid zones: Principles and options
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Socio-economic Impact of Smallholder Irrigation Development in Zimbabwe
Smallholder irrigation development has shown throughout the developing world that it can be used as a key drought mitigation measure and as a vehicle for the long-term agricultural and macro-economic development of a country. Successful smallholder irrigation schemes can result in increased productivity, improved incomes and nutrition, employment creation, food security and drought relief savings for the government. However, socio-economic evaluations of smallholder irrigation schemes are needed at regular intervals in order to be able to derive lessons from past experiences and also help policy makers in formulating sound policies for future development.

This study, carried out in Zimbabwe, is an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of the smallholder irrigation sub-sector by evaluating the socio-economic impact of ten selected smallholder irrigation schemes. Five of the selected schemes were known as being successful and five as being problematic. This report summarizes the methodology and procedures used during the evaluation, the findings, conclusions and recommendations.

The impact assessment and evaluation of the irrigation schemes was carried out through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), covering farmers, key institutions and local authorities. The study reveals that, whilst some smallholder irrigation schemes can perform well others can actually perform badly. Factors, which determine the performance, include planning, group cohesion, institutional support, strength of the Irrigation Management Committee (IMC), choice of crops, appropriateness of the technical design and commitment of the farmers.

Keywords: Socio-economics, irrigation development, Zimbabwe, Africa.
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Soil and water conservation in semi-arid areas
Publication Series: FAO Soils bulletin
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Soil salinity assessment - Methods and interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
Credits: J.D. Rhoades, F. Chanduvi, S. Lesch
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The use of saline waters for crop production
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Transfer of irrigation management services - Guidelines
Irrigation management transfer (IMT) means the relocation of responsibility and authority for irrigation management from government agencies to non-governmental organizations, such as the water users’ associations. It may include all or partial transfer of management functions and authority. IMT is a widespread process that is taking place in more than forty countries worldwide. Experience indicates the need for a more conceptual and systematic approach to the intended reform. These guidelines have been written to assist policy-makers, planners, technical experts, farmers’ representatives and others involved in irrigation management transfer programmes to design and implement an effective, comprehensive and sustainable reform.
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 58
Credits: Douglas L. Vermillion, Juan A. Sagardoy
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Transferencia de la gestión del riego - Directrices
La Transferencia de la Gestión del Riego (TGR) supone la redistribución de responsabilidades y autoridad de la gestión del riego desde las agencias gubernamentales a las organizaciones no gubernamentales, como las Asociaciones de Usuarios del Agua. Podría incluir la transferencia total o parcial de las funciones de gestión y la autoridad. La TGR es un proceso extendido que está teniendo lugar en más de 40 países alrededor del mundo. La experiencia indica la necesidad de un enfoque sistemático para la reforma pretendida. Estas directrices se han elaborado para asistir a los políticos, planificadores, expertos técnicos, representantes de los agricultores y otros agentes involucrados en los programas de transferencia de la gestión del riego a diseñar y llevar a cabo una reforma efectiva, completa y sostenible.
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 58
Credits: Douglas L. Vermillion, Juan A. Sagardoy
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Transfert des services des gestion de l'irrigation - Directives
Le transfert de la gestion de l’irrigation est le passage de la responsabilité et de l’autorité de la gestion des périmètres irrigués des organismes publics aux organisations non gouvernementales telles que les associations des usagers de l’eau. Ce transfert peut être total ou partiel, tant pour ce qui concerne les fonctions de gestion que pour l’autorité. Il concerne actuellement une quarantaine de pays dans le monde. L’expérience montre qu’une approche plus conceptuelle et systématique de ce type de réforme est nécessaire. Ces directives ont été élaborées pour aider les décideurs, les planificateurs, les experts techniques et les autres responsables des réformes qui s’occupent de programmes de transfert de la gestion de l’irrigation à concevoir et mettre en oeuvre une réforme efficace, globale, intégrée et durable.
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 58
Credits: Douglas L. Vermillion, Juan A. Sagardoy
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Télédétection et ressources en eau
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Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper
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Water Harvesting
Publication Series: AGL/Misc/17/91
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Water Quality Management and Control of Water Pollution
In its recent examination of global water scarcity (1997) the United Nations system identified water quality as one of the key concerns in Asia in the next century. This concern is based on the fact that water quality degradation is so severe in many Asian countries that it is placing serious constraints on economic growth; it continues to be a serious problem for human health and it is causing widespread negative environmental effects. The problem of future management of water quality in Asia is a complex one, and requires re-examination of a number of key areas – including technical, institutional, legal and governance issues. Within this context, FAO organized a Regional Workshop on Water Quality Management and Control of Water Pollution which took place in Bangkok, Thailand from 26 to 30 October 1999. This publication contains the report and recommendations of the Workshop and the edited versions of 18 papers presented and discussed during the meeting.
Keywords: water quality, water pollution
Publication Series: Water Reports 21
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Water Quality for Agriculture
The document is presented as a field guide for evaluating the suitability of a water for irrigation. Included are suggestions for obtaining maximum utilization of an existing or potential water supply. Guideline values given identify a potential problem water based on possible restrictions in use related to 1) salinity, 2) rate of water infiltration into the soil, 3) a specific ion toxicity, or 4) to some other miscellaneous effects. Discussions and examples are given along with possible management alternatives to deal with these potential problems.
Publication Series: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29
Credits: R.S. Ayers, D.W. Westcot
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Water for Animals
Publication Series: AGL/Misc/4/85
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Water sector policy review and strategy formulation. A general framework
Publication Series: FAO Land and Water Bulletin
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Wetland Characterization and Classification for Sustainable Agricultural Development
Food security is a universal goal and a major concern to FAO. It is clearly linked with a sustainable level of food production. The limits to the latter are set both by the availability of land and water resources and by the human capacity to increase the productivity of these resources without depleting or degrading them.
The potential contribution of wetland or inland valley resources to food security is vast and very much varied. Mobilising this potential depends on peoples ability to understand and wisely use the many interactions (social, physical, hydrological, biological and chemical) which ultimately determine the functions of a wetland. Wetlands and inland valleys are fragile ecosystems, which need careful understanding, characterization, management and monitoring if agricultural improvements are going to be introduced.
The consultation on wetland characterization and classification for sustainable agricultural development in Eastern and Southern Africa addressed some of these crucial issues and prepared the pathway for exchange of information and networking among the countries and experts involved.
The proceedings of this consultation are presented in this publication, in three main parts. Part I gives background information and the recommendations of the consultation. Part II contains the country papers presented by specialists from eight countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. Part III contains technical papers presented by resources persons from different organizations and institutions.
Keywords: wetland, inland valley, bas-fond, agro-ecosystem, characterization, classification, sustainable agricultural development, Africa
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