COBALT-RICH FERROMANGANESE CRUSTS
technical and policy support, and capacity-building activities through the Deep Sea Minerals in the
Pacific Islands Region: a Legal and Fiscal Framework for Sustainable Resource Management project
(Figure 1). This publication created as part of that project, brings together expert knowledge about the
geology and biology of cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts and information about best practices relat-
ed to the environmental management and technical aspects of mineral exploration and extraction.
Cronan, D.S. (1984). Criteria for recognition of areas of potentially eco-
nomic manganese nodules and encrustations in the CCOP/SOPAC
region of the central and southwestern tropical Pacific. South Pac.
Geol. Notes 3, 1–17.
Hein, J.R., Koschinsky, A., Bau, M., Manheim, F.T., Kang, J.-K. and Roberts,
L. (2000). Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts in the Pacific. In: (Ed:
Cronan, D.S.) Handbook of marine minerals. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
Hodkinson, R.A, and Cronan, D.S. (1991). Regional and depth variabili-
ty in the composition of cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts from the
SOPAC area and adjacent parts of the central equatorial Pacific. Mar.
Geol. 98, 437–447.
ISA (2012) International Seabed Authority receives two new applications
for seabed exploration.
ISA (2002). Polymetallic massive sulphides and cobalt-rich ferromanga-
nese crusts: status and prospects. Technical Study No. 2.
Exclusive economic zone
Participating Paci c Island States
Figure 1. The Pacific ACP States (i.e. Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group of States) participating in the European Union funded SPC Deep
Sea Minerals Project.